In our life, it often happens that we take great pleasure in using any useful inventions, but at the same time we have no idea when and by whom they were created. The same goes for the Internet. Most of us can not imagine our life without the Global Network, it uses it daily for work, study, entertainment, communication and just search for the right information. But how many know the story of the creation of the Internet? Find out how it was after reading the article.
War and network
It is not known how soon the prerequisites for the creation of the Internet could have arisen if it were not for the “cold war” and “arms race” that took place between the USA and the USSR. As one of the results of the confrontation of two influential states, a project of the US Department of Defense called the Advanced Research Projects Agency (English Advanced Research Projects Agency), abbreviated ARPA, appeared. This organization was commissioned to develop a computer network through which it could transmit secret data in the event of a major war. However, officially this reason was not confirmed by anyone.
The first scientist who spoke about the possibility of creating such a network was J. Liklider from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who wrote in 1962 about a project that he called the “Galactic Network”. This idea of the scientist was very close to what is currently understood as the Internet. However, the concept has existed only in theory. Ahead were the most important steps: the search for technical capabilities and algorithms for its implementation, as well as years of experiments in an attempt to achieve a positive result. Thus began the long history of creating the Internet.
It is significant that these first developments were created quite freely and spontaneously, with minimal control of the governments of both countries. And subsequently, the creator of the Internet Tim Berners-Lee noted: "We could not do anything like this if it was under the control of the state from the very beginning." Speaking of "we", the computer genius implied, including his predecessors, who created the ARPANET network.
The first successful connection was made in 1969. At that time, the ARPANET network server was located at the University of California, Los Angeles, and attempts were made to establish a connection between the two cities: Los Angeles and Stanford, the distance between which was 640 km. It was necessary to remotely connect to another computer on the network and send a written message, and a telephone was used to confirm the transfer. The experiment was conducted by university scientists Charlie Kline and his colleague Bill Duvall.
So, the year of creation of the Internet is 1969, the day is October 29, the time is 22.30. It was then that I managed to completely transfer the short word log over the network from two computers (short for login, as the password for entering the system came to be called). Thus began a long history of the creation and development of the Internet, which continues to this day.
Shortly after that success, as early as 1971, the first program for sending email appeared. Innovation was extremely popular, and it was quickly gaining popularity in the United States. In addition, in the 70s of the 20th century, the history of the creation of the Internet was marked by the emergence and development of systems such as bulletin boards, emails and newsgroups.
Computers of all networks, unite
At the same time, the developers of computer technology was working to create a single protocol that could unite all existing disparate networks into a single whole. The head of this large-scale project was the American inventor Robert Kahn. It was he who, together with Vinton Cerf and other colleagues, developed TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol), which is still used to connect computers into a single network. For this invention, Kan and Cerf received unofficial titles of the “fathers” of the Internet.
The basic principles of the protocol they developed are as follows:
- connection occurs without internal changes in the network;
- retransmission of unsold information;
- the use of gateways and routers;
- lack of a common control system.
By 1983, the ARPANET network was completely transferred to the TCP / IP protocol, after which it changed its name to the usual for the modern ear - the Internet. However, over time, this name stuck with the newly formed network NSFNet, which turned out to be more popular and, by 1990, ousted its competitor.
In the same 1983, the Domain Name System (DNS) was developed. So, the story of the creation of the Internet has taken another huge step forward.
And yet it was not the kind of Internet that we know now. Yes, e-mail, mailing programs, bulletin boards, and even (in 1988) the first chat, allowing network users to communicate in real time, have already appeared. However, there was not what we now call the World Wide Web - an inexhaustible source of information, consisting of a set of web pages connected by hyperlinks. All this was developed and launched only in 1989, primarily due to the work of the famous scientist from the UK. It was Tim Berners-Lee who developed the HTTP protocol, the HTML hypertext markup language, the URLs for websites — in a word, everything without which it is impossible to imagine the functioning of the Internet at the present stage.
If we draw an analogy with other great inventions, we can say that theorists and experimenters with ARPANET discovered electricity, and the creator of the Internet, Berners-Lee and his colleagues, carried out the development of the first electrical appliances.
Sites and browsers
But the development process did not end there, but only continued at an accelerated pace. 1991 is the year when the first Internet site was created, located at: info.cern.ch. The World Wide Web has become widely available, starting the fulfillment of Berners-Lee's cherished dream that everyone on the planet can take advantage of the Internet. Gradually, more and more web servers and sites began to appear, based on software developed by the British computer genius.
Since 1993, the first browsers began to appear (Mosaic, Internet Explorer and others), more and more people around the world were connected to the Internet, and the number of sites increased to hundreds of thousands.
Internet in the USSR and Russia
The first channel of communication with the World Wide Web was laid in 1982, being used exclusively for scientific purposes - to access the archives of the main European libraries. It was only in 1989 that expansion began so that ordinary citizens could gain access. A year later, the first Relcom network appeared, and the su domain for websites of the Soviet Union was registered. News and other information began to spread through the network, as well as communication between the participants, including those separated by the ocean.
World wide web today
Already by 1997, the history of the creation of the Internet was almost complete, and the global network was about as we know it today. But the difference is that at that time only 10 million computers were connected to the Internet, and now the figure has reached 1.2 billion.
None of the previous means of communication has achieved such staggering results in such a short time.
The current trend in the development of the Internet has become its distribution in the developing countries of the world, as well as access through a variety of devices: communication satellites, radio channels, cable TV, telephone and cellular communications, electricity cables and leased lines.