The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is one of the greatest empires of the twentieth century. Formation of the territory took place from 1922 to 1956. In the final version, the USSR consisted of 15 republics.
Formation of the USSR
The date when it was officially proclaimed the creation of the USSR, should be considered December 29, 1922. The initiators of the signing of the memorandum on the formation of the state association were: the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Belarus, Ukraine and the Transcaucasian republics.
The main factors that influenced the unification of countries in a single union were:
- ideology - the republics of the USSR were ruled by one party - the Bolsheviks;
- common historical traditions - all the subjects in one way or another were formerly part of the Russian Empire;
- the need to unite for collective military security - minimize costs by creating a unified army.
The day after the declaration of unification within the framework of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the first All-Union Congress of Soviets was held, which proclaimed the unification of the republics into a single state, and the declaration and text of the union treaty was signed. It is the date of December 30, 1922 and is the starting point in the history of the USSR.
The declaration stated that the structure of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics assumed the unification of the republics on the principles of equality, as well as on the basis of nationality. The form of the organization fully corresponded to the basic Bolshevik theses, such as the dictatorship of the proletariat and the poorest peasants.
Like any state entity, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has received its Constitution. It was adopted in January 1924 and was a partial copy of the constitution of the "main" founder - the RSFSR. The first version of the Constitution of the USSR was considered quite modern and coped with the tasks characteristic of the fundamental law. Namely, it defended the basic rights and freedoms of a citizen. This constitution lasted until 1936. It was changed due to the fact that the composition of the USSR was expanded. Also, the adjustment of the main law was influenced by foreign economic and foreign policy factors.
Republics that are part of the USSR in the twenties and thirties
Soon after the first constitution of 1924 was adopted, the number of republics also increased. The Uzbek and Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republics were the first to join the newly formed state. These republics were created in the territory that is part of the RSFSR. On October 27, the Turkestan ASSR was abolished, and in its place appeared these two new subjects of the USSR.
The next stage of reformatting the republics took place on December 5, 1929, when part of the territory (Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was separated from the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a separate republic.
Transformation of the TSSF
Seven years later, on December 5, 1936, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic was abolished. On this day, it was decided to create three new republics in these territories: the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republics.
In the same period, the second branch of the RSFSR and the creation of two more union republics were completed. Thus, on December 5, the Kazakh and Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republics emerged, based on the respective ASSR.
The subsequent growth of new actors is directly linked to foreign political events that took place in Europe. The expansion was due to the Second World War and military action against Finland.
On March 31, the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Republic was established. It appeared as a result of the defeat of Finland and the loss of a substantial part of the territory in favor of the RSFSR. To the USSR have departed such parts of Finland as part of the fishing peninsula, the Ladoga Lake region, and the Karelian Isthmus. In the status of the republic, the Karelian-Finnish territory lasted until July 16, 1956. That day it was abolished in the ASSR and became part of the RSFSR. Also part of the territory was returned to Finland, and the name "Finnish" disappeared from the name.
The current Ukraine in the USSR also did not have stable outlines. The first change in the Ukrainian Soviet Republic was within the framework of secret agreements between the USSR and Germany, known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. According to it, Ukraine received its modern western regions. In fact, the USSR returned the lands of the Russian Empire, which were given to Poland under a treaty of 1921. It happened in the autumn of 1939. And already on August 2, 1940, part of Ukraine, in the form of the Moldavian ASSR with the addition of Bessarabia, captured from Romania, became the Moldavian SSR.
Accession of the Baltic States
The last expansion of the USSR was the annexation of the Baltic states. June 22, 1940 in the USSR entered the Republic of Estonia. A corresponding declaration was adopted. Lithuania joined the USSR on August 3, 1940. The Lithuanian SSR was formed on July 21, 1940. The last of the Soviet republics became the Latvian SSR. Latvia in the USSR completed the formation of the main outlines of the territory of the Union. It happened on August 5, 1940.
As a result of the unification of the 15 Soviet republics, the Soviet Union became the largest country, occupying one-sixth of the world's land area.