The Caucasus, to be exact its southern part, has a rich millennial history and is even considered one of those places where civilization was born. And this is not surprising, because the rich nature and climatic conditions of this region have long attracted people. Today in the Caucasus people of different nationalities live, professing different religions. Each of the states located there has its own unique history. This material will briefly outline the history of Azerbaijan - all from the very beginning until our days.
The Cradle of Civilizations
On the territory of modern Azerbaijan, the first people appeared in the stone age. In one of the caves in the lands of Karabakh, researchers have found various stone tools: arrowheads, knives, axes, including those intended for wood, and butchering. There was discovered jaw of the Neanderthal man, and the age of the drawings, left by some artist, is 10 thousand years.
Perhaps, it is with the primitive communal system that the history of Azerbaijan begins. Since ancient times people lived here. Near the Hill of Killidag, the remains of ancient settlements have been unearthed. It is known that the primitive people who lived on this land were engaged in hunting, as well as cattle breeding and farming.
Land of Azerbaijan before our era
Primitive people who lived on the territory of modern Azerbaijan has been improving its skills. Over time, they learned to work copper, and in the IV Millennium BC and iron. More sophisticated tools have allowed to improve performance, which ultimately led to the stratification of society and the decline of the primitive communal system. Gradually formed new tribes, among whom were lullubi, money, cutie, Albanians and others.
Where does the history of Azerbaijan come from? At the beginning of the first millennium BC. e. in these lands formed the state of Manna, which then became part of a more powerful Media. However, in those days in this territory many wars of conquest were conducted - here Scythians and Cimmerians, and then Persians and Macedonians invaded.
Atropatena and Albania
After the fourth century BC Alexander the great defeated the armies of the Persians, within the boundaries inherent in the contemporary southern Azerbaijan, a new state – Atropatena in the capital city of Gazaka. It was a pretty developed country with a writing and money relations, which was dominated by the "cult of fire" or Zoroastrianism. Atropatena existed before 150 ad, by the Way, the name of the state associated with a toponym Azerbaijan.Approximately simultaneously with the emergence of Atropatena to the north of this country, the state of Caucasian Albania is formed, the capital of which is the city of Kabala, whose ruins are on the territory of the Gabala region of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The population of this country consists of tribes of Albanians, Legs and Udins. Undoubtedly, the ancient history of Azerbaijan originates precisely from these states.
In Caucasian Albania, the main religion is Christianity, there is also a written language and there is an alphabet, and the lands of this country are exceptionally fertile. The inhabitants of Caucasian Albania are successfully engaged in agriculture, the craft is thriving. Examples of products made by Albanian artisans were found at excavations in Mingechaur.
VII-XII centuries. The invasions of Arabs and Seljuk Turks
History of Azerbaijan consists of many aggressive raids inflicted on these lands for centuries. So, in VII century in the Caucasus invades the Arab Caliphate, which resulted in spread to these lands of Islam. Emerged in the year 816 peasant uprising, which lasted 20 years, was suppressed, after which existed at the time the state broke up into many feudal principalities. Among them the special role played by the state of Shirvan, located in the North-East of Azerbaijan.
In the middle of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks came to the region, who managed to subdue most of the territories of today's Azerbaijan. The nomadic conquerors inflicted serious damage on the agriculture that flourished here, but eventually they themselves went on to a sedentary lifestyle. Based on the Turkic language, mixed with the language of the local population, later the Azerbaijani language was formed.
As a result of the struggle which led the local population against foreign invaders in the XII century the Turks were expelled from the region. These victories have created the preconditions for strengthening of the statehood and the future socio-economic progress. Agriculture and handicraft are flourishing as never before, in addition to this there has been a notable development in the field of science and culture. Perhaps the history of Azerbaijan, originates in this period when disparate principalities United under the leadership of Atabekov of Azerbaijan.
XIII - XVI centuries. The Mongol invasion. The struggle for domination in the Caucasus
The troubles of the ancestors of modern Azerbaijanis do not end with the departure of the Turks in the early thirteenth century begins the invasion of the Mongol hordes. The conquerors destroyed many flourishing cities, destroyed the irrigation network of the region. Their presence here resulted in the suspension of development of the region almost two centuries. Then Azerbaijan is part of the Mongolian state of Hulagid. The revival of the region falls on the XIV century, when, finally, breaks down the state of Hulagid. In the same period are established diplomatic relations between Sirvana and Russia.
In the second half of the 15th century, the struggle for domination in the region intensified. And already at the beginning of the 16th century the Safavid dynasty seized power in Shirvan, as a result of which the Safavid state was founded, which subsequently had a significant impact on Azerbaijan. The history of the country during this period was marked by the rapid development of science, culture and, in particular, literature.
The end of the XVI - the first half of the XIX centuries. Section of Azerbaijan
The end of the XVI century, however, as the whole history of Azerbaijan, was marked by upheavals associated with the struggle between Turkey and Safavid dynasty for the right to dominate the Caucasus. In the XVIII century in Azerbaijan established the domination of Iran ended in the beginning of feudal performances, which led to the murder of Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran. After this, on the Azerbaijani lands is formed in more than a dozen khanates of independence which continue to threaten Iran and Turkey. The rulers of some khanates decide to seek support from Russia.
As a result of the Russo-Iranian wars of the first half of the 19th century, Azerbaijan again lost its independence and was divided into two parts. Accordingly, the northern part has moved to Russia, and the southern part to Iran.
The second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. Azerbaijan as part of Russia
In the second half of the XIX century, the country began a rapid increase in oil production. However, it was mined here since time immemorial. In 1893, the active construction of railroads began, which by 1890 were already connecting Azerbaijan with Russia. Industrial progress, as well as Azerbaijan's integration into the Russian economy and subsequent reforms, have yielded positive results. There is also a significant infusion of money into the country's economy, including Western ones.
The history of Azerbaijan in Russia also contains many interesting facts. At the turn of the century, the first Social Democratic circles are being created in Baku. The proletariat of the capital takes part in various strikes and strikes arising from the plight of the Azerbaijani people, aggravated in connection with the outbreak of the First World War.
Azerbaijan in the USSR
As a result of the 1917 revolution begins again the struggle for Azerbaijan. The history of the independent state in its present form starts here. Next spring here was proclaimed the independent Azerbaijani Democratic Republic, the rule which refused to recognize Nagorno-Karabakh. Established in Azerbaijan in 1920, Soviet power put an end to the dispute.
Along with all the other peoples living in the Soviet Union, the Azerbaijani people took part in the great Patriotic war. The country has produced a significant quantity of ammunition and fuel for the Soviet army. Over a hundred of Azerbaijani soldiers awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
In 1991, in connection with the collapse of the USSR, Azerbaijan finally gained independence. The authorities of the newly created state have set their sights on building a democratic society. A multinational country is Azerbaijan. The history of the state, in which people of different nationalities lived for centuries, is perhaps just beginning.
It only remains to add that traditional features that have been inherent in the Azerbaijani people since ancient times have always been hospitality, respect for elders, tolerance and peacefulness.