The Caucasus, or rather its southern part, has a rich thousand-year history and is even considered one of those places where civilization originated. And it is not surprising, because the richest nature and climatic conditions of this region have long attracted people. Today, in the Caucasus, there are people of different nationalities who profess different religions. Each of the states located there has its own unique history. This material will briefly outline the history of Azerbaijan - everything from the very beginning up to our days.
Cradle of Civilizations
On the territory of modern Azerbaijan, the first people appeared in the stone age. In one of the caves in the lands of Karabakh, researchers have found various stone tools: arrowheads, knives, axes, including those intended for wood, and butchering. There was discovered jaw of the Neanderthal man, and the age of the drawings, left by some artist, is 10 thousand years.
Perhaps, the history of Azerbaijan begins with the primitive communal system. Since ancient times, people lived here. Not far from Mount Killidag, remains of ancient settlements have been excavated. It is known that primitive people who lived on this land, engaged in hunting, as well as cattle breeding and farming.
Lands of Azerbaijan BC
Primitive people who lived on the territory of modern Azerbaijan has been improving its skills. Over time, they learned to work copper, and in the IV Millennium BC and iron. More sophisticated tools have allowed to improve performance, which ultimately led to the stratification of society and the decline of the primitive communal system. Gradually formed new tribes, among whom were lullubi, money, cutie, Albanians and others.
Where does the history of Azerbaijan as a state originate from? At the beginning of I millennium BC. er in these lands, the state of Manna was formed, which then became part of the more powerful Mussels. However, at that time, many wars of conquest were waged on this territory - Scythians and Cimmerians, and then the Persians and Macedonians invaded here.
Atropatena and Albania Caucasian
After the fourth century BC Alexander the great defeated the armies of the Persians, within the boundaries inherent in the contemporary southern Azerbaijan, a new state – Atropatena in the capital city of Gazaka. It was a pretty developed country with a writing and money relations, which was dominated by the "cult of fire" or Zoroastrianism. Atropatena existed before 150 ad, by the Way, the name of the state associated with a toponym Azerbaijan.Approximately simultaneously with the emergence of Atropatena, to the north of this country, the Caucasian Albania state is formed, the capital of which was the city of Kabala, whose ruins are located in the Gabala region of the Azerbaijan Republic. The population of this country consists of the tribes of the Albanians, Legs and Udis. Of course, the ancient history of Azerbaijan originates from these countries.
In Caucasian Albania, Christianity becomes the main religion, there is also writing and has its own alphabet, and the lands of this country are exceptionally fertile. Residents of Caucasian Albania are successfully engaged in farming, the craft is flourishing. Examples of products made by Albanian artisans were found at an excavation site in Mingechevir.
VII-XII centuries. Invasions of Arabs and Seljuk Turks
History of Azerbaijan consists of many aggressive raids inflicted on these lands for centuries. So, in VII century in the Caucasus invades the Arab Caliphate, which resulted in spread to these lands of Islam. Emerged in the year 816 peasant uprising, which lasted 20 years, was suppressed, after which existed at the time the state broke up into many feudal principalities. Among them the special role played by the state of Shirvan, located in the North-East of Azerbaijan.
In the middle of the 11th century, Seljuk Turks came to the region, who managed to subdue most of the territories of today's Azerbaijan. Nomadic conquerors caused serious damage to agriculture flourishing here, but over time they themselves went into a settled way of life. On the basis of the Turkic language, mixed with the language of the local population, the Azerbaijani language was subsequently formed.
As a result of the struggle which led the local population against foreign invaders in the XII century the Turks were expelled from the region. These victories have created the preconditions for strengthening of the statehood and the future socio-economic progress. Agriculture and handicraft are flourishing as never before, in addition to this there has been a notable development in the field of science and culture. Perhaps the history of Azerbaijan, originates in this period when disparate principalities United under the leadership of Atabekov of Azerbaijan.
XIII - XVI centuries. Mongol invasion. Fight for dominance in the Caucasus
The troubles of the ancestors of modern Azerbaijanis do not end with the departure of the Turks in the early thirteenth century begins the invasion of the Mongol hordes. The conquerors destroyed many flourishing cities, destroyed the irrigation network of the region. Their presence here resulted in the suspension of development of the region almost two centuries. Then Azerbaijan is part of the Mongolian state of Hulagid. The revival of the region falls on the XIV century, when, finally, breaks down the state of Hulagid. In the same period are established diplomatic relations between Sirvana and Russia.
In the second half of the 15th century, the struggle for supremacy in the region intensified. And at the beginning of the 16th century, the Safavid dynasty seized power in Shirvan, as a result of which the Safavid state was founded, which subsequently had a significant influence on Azerbaijan. The history of the country during this period was marked by the rapid development of science, culture and, in particular, literature.
End of the XVI - the first half of the XIX centuries. Section of Azerbaijan
The end of the XVI century, however, as the whole history of Azerbaijan, was marked by upheavals associated with the struggle between Turkey and Safavid dynasty for the right to dominate the Caucasus. In the XVIII century in Azerbaijan established the domination of Iran ended in the beginning of feudal performances, which led to the murder of Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran. After this, on the Azerbaijani lands is formed in more than a dozen khanates of independence which continue to threaten Iran and Turkey. The rulers of some khanates decide to seek support from Russia.
As a result of the Russian-Iranian wars of the first half of the XIX century, Azerbaijan again lost its independence and was divided into two parts. Accordingly, the northern part was ceded to Russia, and the southern - to Iran.
The second half of XIX - early XX centuries. Azerbaijan within Russia
In the second half of the XIX century, the country began a rapid growth in oil production. However, it has been mined here since time immemorial. In 1893, the active construction of railways began, which already by 1890 connected Azerbaijan with Russia. Industrial progress, as well as the integration of Azerbaijan into the Russian economy and the reforms that followed, give a positive result. Also, there is a significant infusion of money into the economy of the country, including Western ones.
The history of Azerbaijan as part of Russia also contains many interesting facts. At the turn of the century, the first Social Democratic circles were created in Baku. The proletariat of the capital takes part in various strikes and strikes arising from the plight of the Azerbaijani people, aggravated by the outbreak of the First World War.
Azerbaijan within the USSR
As a result of the 1917 revolution begins again the struggle for Azerbaijan. The history of the independent state in its present form starts here. Next spring here was proclaimed the independent Azerbaijani Democratic Republic, the rule which refused to recognize Nagorno-Karabakh. Established in Azerbaijan in 1920, Soviet power put an end to the dispute.
Along with all the other peoples living in the Soviet Union, the Azerbaijani people took part in the great Patriotic war. The country has produced a significant quantity of ammunition and fuel for the Soviet army. Over a hundred of Azerbaijani soldiers awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
In 1991, in connection with the collapse of the USSR, Azerbaijan finally gained independence. The authorities of the newly created state took the course to build a democratic society. A multinational country is Azerbaijan. The history of the state, in which for centuries people of different nationalities got along, perhaps, is just beginning.
It only remains to add that the traditional features of the Azerbaijani people since ancient times have always been hospitality, respect for elders, tolerance and peacefulness.