The main funds are the necessary means of production in the enterprise of any form of ownership. They make up a considerable part of the property, allowing to produce products, to fulfill production plans andto realize profitable activity. These are buildings, structures, machines, mechanisms, transport and equipment, that is, all the objects (more than a year) in the economic process. Taking into account the need to ensure control over the security of these facilities, the current legislation has approved the methodology and developed the basic stages of the inventory.
The purpose of the inventory
Inventory of fixed assets aims to control the security of objects, identify losses, shortages or unaccounted items. It is subject to all types of property, including those not owned by the company, but accounted for in the financial statements. For example: objects taken for storage under the contract, available leased assets, property received for installation, as well as not taken into account for various reasons.
When an inventory is made
Regulates the inventory and determines its terms manager. However, an inventory is mandatory:
- with the change of employees responsible for the safety of facilities;
- when revealing facts of theft of fixed assets;
- In the event of force majeure, for example, a natural disaster, which caused the partial or complete destruction of property.
Often, the inventory of fixed assets is necessary when implementing new accounting and business management programs.
Powers and composition of the inventory commission
The commission is appointed by the order of the head of the company. An inventory takes place, usually under the chairmanship of the chief engineer or deputy chief. The commission includes employees of the accounting department and technical department - engineers, technologists, production specialists. In the order, the manager determines the timing of the inventory, the date of its start and end. If necessary, members of the Internal Audit Service (if any) or a representative of an independent audit firm may be included in the committee. On the participation of an external auditor in the inventorya contract of services must be drawn up and a power of attorney must be presented. It should be remembered that the absence of any member of the commission calls into question the authenticity of the results of the inventory. They can be invalidated.
Registration of inventory inventories
Records on the actual availability of property are recorded in the inventory of a uniform, approved by the State Statistics Committee of Russia, forms. Today, the current legislation does not require the registration of inventory results on these forms, companies can develop their own forms containing the requisites and approved by the company's CEO. However, the use of unified forms by the enterprise is most expedient: they take into account all the necessary fields and requisites.
Preparation for inventory
An inventory is preceded by the receipt by the commission of a receipt from the person responsible for the preservation of property, in which the registration of operations for the movement of the OS in accordance with the law is confirmed. All unified forms of inventory inventories, including the INV-1 form, already contain the receipt text. On all the latest accounting documents not carried out for accounting, the chairman of the commission makes a note "Before the audit" with the date and signature.
Actually, the inventory of fixed assets consists in inspection of the presented property objects, entering information on them in the inventory: name and purpose, inventory and serial number, year of manufacture and number of objects. The column "actual availability" indicates all the objects that are available on the giventhe production site, regardless of whether they are listed in accounting. When establishing objects of the OS, the data on which are absent in the accounting records, they should be entered in the inventory and subsequently determined the market value of the object for entering into the company's fixed assets. Inventory of fixed assets should be carried out with the formulation of a separate inventory for each production site in the context of the areas of responsibility of accountable persons. Separately, inventories are made for OS objects:
• not suitable for further operation with an indication of the reasons;
• to those who are on the protection or lease, indicating the grounds-agreements for the storage or use of leased property and its annexes.
Inventory inventory is made in 2 copies. The results of the inventory are confirmed by the signatures of the commission members and accountable persons. The first copy is transferred to the accounting department for further processing, compilation of a scorecard and conducting accounting operations. The second copy of the inventory remains with the accountable person. If there are leased or stored objects, a third copy of the inventory is drawn up, which is signed and sent to the lessor or bailor.
Inventory results accounting
If there are differences in the actual availability of OS objects with accounts, a descriptive statement of the INV-18 form is made, where the positions with established discrepancies are indicated and shortages and surpluses of property objects are identified in quantitative and cost terms.
To summarize the discrepancies in the groups of shortages and surpluses identified during the inventory, use the statement of results, identified by the inventory (form No. INV-26). It groups information on discrepancies between actual and accounting balances and, guided by company policy, reflect the results in accounting.
Reflecting the results of inventory in accounting
When identifying unrecorded objects of the operating system, it is necessary to account for them at the initial cost determined by current market prices, increasing by this amount other revenues of the company. Tax accounting for the value of surplus property, installed in the inventory process, recognizes in the composition of non-operating income. In determining the shortage of the OS, the materially responsible person explains this fact in writing. The head of the organization, on the basis of the clarifications provided, decides on writing off the missing object and assigning the amount of damage:
• to recovery upon identification of the guilty;
• to the enterprise's losses if it is impossible to establish the guilty party (for example, when stealing) with documentary evidence of this fact. They can serve as a decision of investigative or judicial bodies.
If it is impossible to identify the perpetrators, the damage from writing off the shortages of the OS in accounting is included in other expenses. The tax accounting recognizes them as non-operating expenses subject to confirmation of the fact of theft.
When all documents are completed and inventory of fixed assets is completed, the transactions of the above transactions in accounting are reflected as follows:
Д-т 08 К-т 91.1 increase by the amount of unaccounted operating funds;
Д-т 01 Д-т 08 - input of the value of unaccounted property in the composition of the OS;
Д-т 02 К-т 01.2 - write-off of the depreciation charged on the missing object;
Д-т 94 К-т 01.2 - write-off of the residual value of the missing object;
Д-т 73.2 К-т 94 - the amount of damage is attributed to the guilty person;
Д-т 50,51,70 К-т 73.2 - the amount of damage is paid to the cashier, to the account of the enterprise or deducted from the employee's salary;
Д-т т 91.2 К-т 94 - written off the damage from the shortage in the company, related to the inability to identify the guilty person.
So, the inventory of fixed assets is a procedure that is necessary not only to maintain the security of the property of the enterprise, but also to timely get rid of idle capacities that are not involved in the production process, which affect the amount of property tax and profit level in the company.