The integration of Russia into the international community led to changes in the economic and political spheres, and also in the education system, which should meet international standards. Ensuring the overall attainment of pupils involves not only the overall development and improvement of linguistic and communicative competence, but also the formation of professional speech culture and culture of thinking. Work in this direction requires new methods and techniques of teaching. During the last the most effective are techniques, forms and methods of teaching, taking into account the identity of the person who is studying, his interests, aptitudes and abilities.
The search for ways to improve the education system
The novice teacher should generate their energy teaching in order to broaden representation a little pupil about the world, focusing on the individual characteristics of each child. A task of the utmost importance is to develop the student positive attitudes and interest in learning. These tasks are known, are implemented by a set of subjects, each of which is an important part of the content of elementary education. The disciplines allow us to expand and deepen understanding of students about the world, help to develop imaginative and logical thinking, creative abilities of children, contribute to the formation of General educational skills. But at the present stage of development of national education, even use of the possibilities of programs in all academic subjects will not give the desired result. Carrying out the educational process, it is necessary to rely not only on traditional methods or practice-proven achievements, but also to seek new approaches to solving problems. Now particularly acute problem of the search of internal reserves of increase of productivity of training. Finding ways to improve education in elementary school has led to a revival of this methodological phenomenon of integrated lesson.
The relevance of the ideas
In Russia the principle of integration should be declared a basic rule of reform of education along with the concepts of humanization and democratization. The relevance of the idea of developing integrated lessons that it is optimal for the current stage of development of the national schools, because at this stage is the increasing complexity of educational content, the volume of necessary information and reduce the time available for its absorption. Abroad developed and implemented a variety of educational technologies, based on integrative approaches. However, the question is, what is the lesson in the integrated class, remains controversial. The problem of introduction of such classes in elementary school, little studied, principle of integration was not well reflected in current textbooks, teachers, without a clear system of guidelines, are forced to solve these problems at the empirical level.
Which items are suitable for integrating
Often when studying poetry in the reading lessons the teacher can sing to their children. Studying the verb in language lessons, can be given the task to find these words in the texts studied in the reading lessons, in the words of the songs featured in music lessons. And how wonderful to combine the material of math and science. Great potential has an integrated music lesson, art, labor training, as different types of artistic and aesthetic activities and design are successfully combined with the study of certain linguistic natural concepts with a reading of works of art. Given the fact that the student cannot take the monotonous information, the combination of the lesson two or three academic subjects to stimulate cognitive activities, stimulate interest in learning, shows the relationship of academic disciplines, and connection with life. Of all the innovative technologies in this there is a possibility of the widespread introduction of it at the initial stage of education as a primary school teacher is many subject and they afford this technology to make a reality. And reason to hope for good results of the integration approach to training is significant. Therefore, this issue requires more in-depth study of the development of the theoretical foundations of an integrated approach to learning. The idea of holding at least one integrated lesson in school today is extremely relevant, because it facilitates successful implementation of new educational objectives: provides opportunity for the teacher along with students to master a significant amount of educational material, to achieve the formation of strong, conscious of interdisciplinary connections, to avoid duplication in the coverage of number of issues.
The essence of integrated learning
One of the areas of methodological enrichment lessons in the elementary grades is to hold them on the basis of the integration of the content. This time requirement, and accessibility of the individual with achievements of culture and science, removing it to a new intellectual level. The basis of the dominant discipline for children is wholeness of the world and awareness of myself in it. Plan an integrated lesson in elementary school is relevant to teaching science. Scientists and practicing teachers think about how to create a General platform of rapprochement of subject knowledge. The importance of integration of knowledge has been repeatedly mentioned in progressive pedagogy. In the Renaissance scientists, opposing scholasticism in education, stressed the importance of forming students ' holistic views on the relationship of natural phenomena. This kind of lessons is established in the didactics and methodology of primary school in the nineties. Held integrated lesson due primarily to the training of the teacher as an expert on many subjects, which perceives the primary school systematically, and is therefore organizationally and methodically to associate related topics in various subjects. The purpose of this connection is an interesting, comprehensive study of concepts, events, phenomena that are important for younger students.
Goals of integrated lessons
Combined lessons are intended to "compress" related material several academic disciplines around a single theme
Signs of the integrated lesson
Existing programs for elementary school allow us to conclude that all subjects of primary level have a kind of integration potential. These lessons are varied. For example, you can conduct an integrated lesson in literature not only two, but even three or four other subjects. What are the signs of such a lesson? First and foremost is the lesson that addresses specific challenges to integrated competition, because it is its integral part. If the lesson of a certain subject, he decides the range of tasks that can be performed only through integration. But in any case, for example, integrated math, can't be isolated, "to fall on". It is organically connected to previous and subsequent lessons, is part of the total educational process. Of course, this list can go on, if you work creatively. It is worth noting the following: certain subjects of the primary school. So, the most successful and effective is an integrated lesson: biology, geography, literature and mathematics. Although sometimes in practice it turns out that it is possible to combine successfully even completely incompatible. It depends on how the teacher will be able to "construct" the classes, to choose optimal forms and methods of implementation of educational material. This process of "design" requires from the teacher a significant creative effort. Defining the tasks of the lesson (educational, developmental, and educational) should match the lighting level of a certain concept in the textbooks, opportunities of each of the items, in the classroom, the use of additional material. It should be noted that the pupils visiting, for example, integrated math, should be occupied not only mathematical calculations, but also different activities and recruitment of these species should be careful.
The teacher as integrator
The teacher should consider the stages of the lesson that they were not only methodically correct, but are steps to overcome which the child would not feel much difficulty, and walked confidently, with interest and ease. For this you need to stoop to the level of perception of children, and so to choose the didactic material to illuminate a certain concept systematically, holistically, to use the possibilities of each piece. You also need to choose an appropriate visualization to complement the stages of the lesson. It should be noted that sometimes the training material volume such that all tasks cannot be completed within 40 minutes (when integrate 3-4 of the subject), then a combined activity carried out on 2-3 lessons. To integrated lessons the teacher prepares in advance and the pupils think that they have to repeat what tasks to perform. Often offer pre-children to work in pairs, groups, give individual tasks to each child. The teacher should strive to maximize the use of each, but so as not to overburden the children. The effectiveness of an integrated lesson we can draw conclusions on the level of assimilation by students the concepts, their impressions of the lesson. Teacher emotional state of pupils should be an important catalyst for determining the effectiveness of the conducted training. Because a well-conducted lesson is a great work of the modern teacher, especially if this lesson is non-standard, integrated.
Non-traditional and non-standard lessons
Alternatives to conventional forms of training have become "non-standard" classes, the specifics of which were considered by leading researchers in Russia and the CIS. The researchers of this issue have determined that the use of "unconventional lessons" it is possible to achieve significant positive results in the formation obshcheuchebnyh abilities, stimulation of cognitive interests of pupils, to create preconditions for interaction of subjects of training to increase the success of under-achievers, because these forms of training allow to take into account the individual possibilities of the person, their real learning potential, create an atmosphere of "comfort" during the learning process. The specificity of non-traditional forms of learning process implies the development of adequate technologies of each lesson, and this, in turn, requires a certain classification. Modern didactics has such attempts at classification of non-traditional lessons:
1) into two groups - "pulsating" and "non-standard lessons";
2) depending on the implementation of the main components of the teaching when solving its didactic tasks - to the lessons of a holistic solution of learning problems
3) how to organize interaction on prolonged lessons.
One of the ways of integration of secondary education is the use of interdisciplinary connections, as reflected in the curriculum disciplines. The link between curriculum subjects are needed for one subject to help students better absorb the other. For example, integrated the lessons of geography and a foreign language will help to study the map of the world, both in Russian and in foreign languages. Interdisciplinary communication needs to take into account the existing interests of students to promote their extension at the expense of interest in creative activities. If during the training integrated the content of the various disciplines and the students are involved in various activities that their consciousness and imagination there was some kind of image, theme or concept, then such employment can be considered integrated. Systematic use of integrated lessons and problem-cognitive tasks of the interdisciplinary nature formed an interest in creative activities to that knowledge which is included in the system of interdisciplinary relations. As is known, the relationship of objects is fruitful only if the implementation of the principle of correlation of the content of the items. Need to organize interdisciplinary connections, so as not to disturb the sequence in the teaching of a particular discipline to this relationship contributed to the achievement of practical learning objectives.
What is the use of integrated lessons?
The learning process is divided into cycles, where each labelled with the subject. The theme covers a specific, meaningful easily detachable industry within the General substantive and conceptual domains. Each specific topic flows from the previous one, and is the justification for the next. For example, together integrated lessons “the world of mathematics” is aimed not only at practicing computational skills, but have a cognitive orientation. Thus, the introduction in educational process of such classes:
1. Creates favorable conditions for the actualization of the student's potential, his cognitive needs and intellectual abilities.
2. Promotes memorization reluctantly, when the material is contained in memory, not because it is necessary to remember, but because it is impossible not to remember, because the student is interested in a meaningful part of the material.
3. It leads to the use of "internal reserves" of children, which, in turn, makes it possible to improve the effectiveness of teaching.
As practice shows, the most expedient non-standard lessons used as the final aggregation and consolidation of knowledge, skills, or when introducing new topics. It is not necessary to abuse such forms of organization of educational process, as this may result in the loss of sustained interest in the discipline studied and the learning process itself. Preparing for the custom lesson can be carried out in accordance with the algorithm of collective creative activities: formulation of the purpose of lesson planning, preparation, lessons, insights. Need to consider strategy, tactics, organization of collective creative activities of students at each stage. Custom lessons are destroying the stamps in the educational process, contribute to its optimization. In the preparation of any type of lesson various types of academic work: frontal, group, individual, and a steam room.
Why we need integrated lessons
Meaningful and purposeful integrated lesson in elementary school contributes to the normal structure of primary school education novelty, originality, contributes to the formation of a holistic picture of the world address the subject from several sides, allow to systematize knowledge and create favorable conditions for the realization of personally oriented, developing education younger schoolboys. Further development of this issue in the detailed analysis of positive and negative results of the use of integrated teaching in primary school past and present. Thus, integrated lesson in elementary school deserves sufficient attention. It enhances the effectiveness of learning, because, based on knowledge gained from the study of other subjects, students find new logical relationships in the training material. And this, in turn, develops in them the interest in learning, stimulates thinking, makes their knowledge conscious, durable. In addition, interdisciplinary links provide an opportunity to efficiently use the time allotted for the study of educational material, significantly reduces the burden of students.