The ideal figure - what is it? This question is difficult to answer, since the definition of this concept is constantly changing, depending on preferences and times. However, proportionality is and remains the main indicator of success, attractiveness and charm at all times.
Ideal settings for different ages
Any generation, nation, person can have their own opinion about the ideal proportions of the body of a man and a woman. In Paleolithic times, as is well known, a female figure with more than hypertrophied forms was considered beautiful - archaeological finds testify to this.
The ideal proportions of the female body in the period of antiquity suggested a small chest, slender legs, wide hips. For the Middle Ages, the canons of beauty were unexpressed waist and hips, but with a rounded belly. At the height of fashion in the Renaissance, there were magnificent forms. And so it continued until the era of classicism.
Only the twentieth century has changed the idea of what should be the ideal proportions of the human body. Now it’s fashionable for a girl to have a flat stomach and slender legs, and a man for a muscular body.
Canons of Polycleth
The system of ideal proportions in the fifth century BC was developed by the ancient Greek sculptor Policlet. Sculptor set a goal to accurately determine the proportions of the body of a man in accordance with their ideas about the ideal.
However, to Poliklet's contemporaries such figures seemed too massive, “square”. These canons, however, became the norm for antiquity, as well as for artists of the Renaissance and Classicism (with some changes). In practice, the developed ideal proportions of the human body Poliklet embodied in the statue “Spearman”. The sculpture of a young man personifies confidence, the balance of body parts demonstrates the power of physical strength.
"Vitruvian Man" da Vinci
The great Italian painter and sculptor in 1490 created the famous drawing titled "Vitruvian Man." He depicts the figure of a man in two positions, which are superimposed on one another:
- With legs and arms divorced sideways. This position is inscribed in a circle.
- With legs together and divorced hands. This position is inscribed in a square.
According to the da Vinci logic, only the ideal proportions of the human body allow the figures in the indicated positions to be inscribed in a circle and a square.
Vitruvius Proportion Theory
The ideal proportions of the body embodied in the da Vinci figure were taken by another Roman scholar and architect, Mark Vitruvius Pollio, for his theory of proportioning. Later, the theory became common in architecture and visual arts. According to her, the following proportions are characteristic of an ideally proportional body:
The concept of the golden section
Vitruvius's theory of proportioning arose much later than the theory of the golden section. It is believed that objects that contain the golden section are the most harmonious. The Egyptian pyramid of Cheops, the Parthenon in Athens, the Notre-Dame de Paris, the paintings by Leonardo da Vinci “The Last Supper”, “Mona Lisa”, the work of Botticelli “Venus”, the painting by Raphael “The School of Athens” were created according to this principle.
The concept of the golden section was first given by the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras. He probably borrowed this knowledge from the Babylonians and the Egyptians. Then this concept is used in the Euclidean "Elements."
Leonardo da Vinci himself introduced the term of the golden section. After him, this principle, many artists consciously applied in his paintings.
Golden symmetry rule
From a mathematical point of view, the golden section consists in proportional division of a segment into unequal parts, while the greater part of the whole segment relates as much as the larger part to the smaller one, that is, the smaller segment relates to the larger one, as the larger part relates to everything.
If the integer is designated as C, the larger part is A, and the smaller one is B, the golden section rule will look like the relation C.A = A.V. The main geometrical figures are based precisely on this ideal proportion.
The rule in question subsequently became an academic canon. It is used in the gene structures of organisms, the structure of chemical compounds, space and planetary systems. Such patterns exist in the structure of the human body as a whole and of individual organs in particular, as well as in biorhythms and the functioning of visual perception and the brain.
"Aesthetic research" Zeising
In 1855, German professor Zeising released his work, in which, based on the results of measurements, about two thousand bodies concluded that division of the figure by the navel point is the most important indicator of the golden section. The ideal proportions of a man’s body fluctuate within the average ratio of 13. 8 = 1.625 and come closer to the golden ratio than the proportions of a woman’s figure, where the average value is expressed in a ratio of 8. 5 = 1.6.
Such indicators are calculated for other parts of the body: shoulder and forearm, fingers and hand, and so on.
90-60-90 - the ideal of beauty?
In society, the ideal proportions of the human body are revised approximately every fifteen years. During this period of time due to the acceleration of ideas about beauty are subject to significant changes.
Therefore, the ideal proportions of the female body - this is not the notorious 90-60-90. Such indicators are not suitable for everyone. After all, every girl has her own body type, which is inherited.
Perfect proportions of the female body
In our country many people now accept the standards of physique, compiled by Dr. A. K. Anokhin, as an ideal at the end of the nineteenth century. According to them, the proportions of the female body are ideal, if per 1 cm of height women have to:
- 0.18-0.2 cm neck circumference;
- 0.18-0.2 cm shoulder girth;
- 0.21-0.23 cm calf girth;
- 0.32-0.36 cm thigh girth;
- 0.5-0.55 cm chest girth (not bust);
- 0.35-0.40 cm waist circumference;
- 0.54-0.62 cm pelvic grasp.
Multiply your height (in centimeters) by the numbers above. Then make the appropriate measurements of the body parts. According to the results it will be clear how you meet the standards.
Many varieties have a modern idea of the ideal of the male figure. In fact, the ideal proportions of the body at the same time for all men cannot be called. There are subjective opinions, but there is a reality that is created by statistics and science. And objective data show that the ideal physique of a man has remained unchanged for thousands of years. From a female point of view, the most attractive is the V-shaped torso, which ensured success in society for its owner in all ages.
Currently, the ideal body proportions can be calculated in different ways: using the McCallum formula, Brock’s method or Wilkes’s coefficient. McCallum, for example, talks about the need to have the same length of the trunk and legs. And the size of the chest, in his opinion, should exceed the size of the pelvis (approximately 10 to 9). Chest and waist should be correlated in proportions of 4 to 3, and arms, divorced to the sides, should be the height of a man. The same parameters were once laid into the phenomenon of the “Vitruvian Man”.
For a man, 180–185 centimeters are considered the ideal height. Weight as a reference is hardly worth citing, it is more important to link it with body proportions and height. Indeed, even with an optimal weight, a loose figure will not bring success to its owner.