The ideal figure - what is it? This question is difficult to answer, because the definition of this concept is constantly changing depending on addictions and the era. However, the most important indicator of success, attractiveness and charm at all times has been and still is proportionality.
Perfect parameters in different centuries
Any generation, people, people can have their own opinion about what are the ideal proportions of the body of a man and a woman. In Paleolithic times, as you know, beautiful was considered a female figure with more than hypertrophied forms - this is evidenced by archaeological findings.
Ideal proportions of the female body in the period of antiquity assumed a small chest, slender legs, wide hips. For the Middle Ages, the canons of beauty were undeveloped waist and hips, but with a rounded belly. At the peak of fashion in the Renaissance, were lush forms. And this continued until the era of classicism.
Only the twentieth century brought changes in the idea of what should be the ideal proportions of the human body. Now it is fashionable that the girl had a flat stomach and slender legs, and the man - a muscular figure.
Canons of the Polyclute
The system of ideal proportions in the fifth century BC was developed by the ancient Greek sculptor Poliklet. The sculptor set a goal to accurately determine the proportions of the body of a man in accordance with his ideas about the ideal.
However, to contemporaries Poliklet such figures seemed too massive, "square." These canons, however, became the norm for antiquity, as well as for artists of the Renaissance and Classicism (with some changes). In practice, the ideal proportions of the human body developed Polyclet embodied in the statue "Spearman". The sculpture of a young man embodies the certainty, the balance of body parts demonstrates the power of physical strength.
"The Vitruvian Man" by da Vinci
A great Italian artist and sculptor in 1490 created a famous drawing called "The Vitruvian Man." He depicts the figure of a man in two positions, which are superimposed one on another:
- With legs apart apart and hands apart. This position is inscribed in the circle.
- With legs folded together, and diluted hands. This position is inscribed in the square.
According to the logic of Da Vinci, only the ideal proportions of the human body allow you to fit the figures in the indicated positions into a circle and a square.
Theory of the proportionality of Vitruvius
The ideal proportions of the body embodied in Da Vinci's drawing took another Roman scientist and architect Mark Vitruvius Pollio as the basis for his theory of proportionality. Later the theory became widespread in architecture and fine arts. According to it, for an ideally proportional body, the following relationships are characteristic:
The concept of the golden section
The theory of the proportionality of Vitruvius arose much later than the theory of the golden section. It is believed that objects that contain a golden section, are the most harmonious. The Egyptian pyramid of Cheops, the Parthenon in Athens, the Cathedral of the Notre Dame, the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci "The Last Supper", "Mona Lisa", the work of Botticelli "Venus", the painting of Raphael "The Athenian School" were created on this principle.
The concept of the golden section was first given by the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras. This knowledge, he may have borrowed from the Babylonians and Egyptians. Then this concept is used in Euclidean "Elements".
Directly the term of the golden section was used by Leonardo da Vinci. After him, many artists consciously applied this principle in their paintings.
Golden symmetry rule
From a mathematical point of view, the golden section consists in the proportional division of a segment into unequal parts, while for the most part the entire segment is treated as the most part - to the smaller, that is, the smaller segment to the larger relates as much as to the larger.
If the whole is denoted as C, the greater part is A, and the smaller is B, the rule of the golden section will have the form of the relation C. A = A. B. The basic geometric figures are based precisely on this ideal proportion.
The rule in question subsequently turned into an academic canon. It is used in the gene structures of organisms, the structure of chemical compounds, cosmic and planetary systems. Such patterns exist in the structure of the human body as a whole and in individual organs in particular, as well as in biorhythms and the functioning of visual perception and the brain.
"Aesthetic Studies" by Zeising
In 1855 the German professor Zeising published his work, in which, on the basis of the measured results obtained, about two thousand bodies concluded that dividing the figure by the point of the navel was the most important indicator of the golden section. Ideal proportions of the body of a man fluctuate within the limits of the average ratio of 13. 8 = 1.625 and come closer to the golden ratio than the proportions of the figure of the woman, where the average value is expressed in the ratio 8. 5 = 1.6.
Such indicators are calculated for other parts of the body: the shoulder and forearm, fingers and hands and so on.
90-60-90 - the ideal of beauty?
In society, the ideal proportions of the human body are revised about every fifteen years. During this period of time due to acceleration, the notions of beauty undergo significant changes.
Therefore, the ideal proportions of the female body - this is not the notorious 90-60-90. These indicators are not suitable for everyone. After all, every girl has her own type of physique, which is inherited.
Ideal proportions of the female body
In our country, many now accept the standards of physique, made by Dr. AK Anokhin, at the end of the nineteenth century. According to them, the proportions of the female body are ideal if the woman has to grow 1 cm tall:
- 0.18-0.2 cm of neck circumference;
- 0.18-0.2 cm of shoulder circumference;
- 0.21-0.23 cm of calf girth;
- 0.32-0.36 cm of the hip circumference;
- 0.5-0.55 cm of chest circumference (not bust);
- 0.35-0.40 cm waist circumference;
- 0.54-0.62 cm of pelvic girth.
Multiply your growth (in centimeters) by the figures given above. Then make appropriate measurements of body parts. By results it becomes clear how much you meet the standards.
Proportions of the body of a man
Many varieties have a modern idea of the ideal of a male figure. In fact, ideal proportions of the body at the same time for all men can not be named. There are subjective opinions, but there is a reality that is created by statistics and science. And objective data indicate that the ideal physique of a man has remained unchanged for thousands of years. From the female point of view the most attractive is the V-shaped torso, which provided its owner in all ages with success in society.
At present, the ideal proportions of the body can be calculated in different ways: using McCallum's formula, Brock's method or Wilkes coefficient. McCallum, for example, says about the need to have the same length of the trunk and legs. And the size of the chest, in his opinion, should exceed the size of the pelvis (about 10 to 9). The chest and waist should be correlated in proportions of 4 to 3, and the arms divorced to the sides should account for the growth of the man. These same parameters in their time were laid in the phenomenon of the Vitruvian Man.
For a man, an ideal growth is considered to be 180-185 centimeters. Weight as a standard hardly worth bringing, it is more important to link it with body proportions and growth. After all, even with the optimal weight, a loose figure will not bring success to its owner.