Born in the family of the poor (3.04.1894 g) youth working at the mine, Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich, whose reign, many associated with the exposure of the "cult of personality", had a distinguished career, rising to the heights of power. Of course, this became possible only thanks to the revolution.
The Bolsheviks Nikita joined in 1918 when he was only 24 years old. He participated in the Civil, graduated as policonstructor of the Kuban army. After the war he became friends with the representative of the party leadership, Kaganovich and very soon (1932) was the second, and three years later – the first Secretary of the Moscow regional party Committee.
Joseph Stalin, contrary to popular belief, Nikita revered him, never contradicted, in the repression participated with great enthusiasm.
The one and only time he opposed capital punishment for convicted – in the case of Bukharin and Rykov. Of course, this does not affect their fate, but that is typical in many cases vindictive and petty Stalin to Khrushchev was not offended.
In 1939 he was appointed First Secretary of the USSR. Strong, energetic, comes from the bottom – many noted that he appeared to be in his place. The reign of Nikita Khrushchev in Ukraine (1938-1949) were due mainly to the war and the subsequent recovery. He was a man, not timid, in the headquarters did not sit, sought to communicate with people.
In the military, as in so much else, Khrushchev was incompetent. All its participation in strategic and tactical planning down to the fact that he supported the Commander in chief. Some sources lay on him responsibility for the series of defeats of the red army on the territory of Ukraine.
Climbing on the Soviet throne
In March 1953 Stalin died. Part of the vast country went into mourning, some in jubilation. Not to emotion was only the party elite: then began a serious struggle for power. A good chance was Malenkov and Beria, but the last one eliminated the usual way: accused of espionage and sabotage, declared an enemy of the people and shot.
In September of ' 53 began the reign of Khrushchev in the USSR. Many sources claim that to obtain the post of first Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Nikita Sergeyevich personally helped beetles and its effect on some members of the Politburo and the Presidium.
And the Swede and the Reaper
As leader of the country, Khrushchev was involved in everything: politics, economy, culture. The lack of knowledge and stubborn, temperamental affected his work quite seriously, sometimes turning curiosities – and not very funny.
In many favorite movie "go To fight some old people" the hero of Bykov, being shot down on the trophy "Messer", falls to the Marines proves that he is "your". Believed him only after the opening goals of most active attackers with the words "Oh, the Queen of the fields!"
This is one of the small inaccuracies of the film (which, however, do not spoil him) the curse came much later, when the head of the country stood up Khrushchev – the years of the reign of General Secretary was marked by numerous initiatives, taking a grotesque character.
One of such projects is considered to be "corn epic": in 1955, after a visit to the U.S., Nikita Sergeyevich took it into his head that this cereal should be the main in the USSR. In countless articles, reports and statements of its referred to as "the Queen of the fields", and began to cultivate everywhere, even where she could not give a harvest principle.
When the next big campaign ended unsuccessfully, Khrushchev (whose reign were often marked by similar failures), blamed it on anyone but themselves. Subsequently, these endless moves from side to side, with the same initial enthusiasm and subsequent charges called voluntarism.
The economic policy of the Soviet leader was not just unfortunate – it was unfortunate, although there are different opinions. Credit to Nikita put, for example, attempt to turn to the market economic model (the"Kosygin reforms"). But I remember the years of Khrushchev's rule N. With. it is not that. The main failure, perhaps, can be considered agriculture. Then throwing the head of "all Union".
In 1957 Khrushchev decided to "catch up and overtake America". The project was envisaged to increase the economic performance several times – and real growth then ceased to arrange of the General Secretary. A year later Khrushchev, whose reign was quite hungry, especially bothered by the fact that the country lacks meat, and commanded urgently to rectify the situation. He pointed to the fact that the timing is unreal, resulted in the corresponding calculations – the head is not impressed.
Then events began to develop in unexpected ways: the first Secretary of the party Committee of Ryazan region Larionov has pledged to triple the workpiece. Nikita was delighted and began to award "real Communists".
And their results
To implement his adventurous enterprise region, perhaps that was enough: it was Packed annual offspring, dairy and breeding cattle. The private sector is cheated shamelessly: taking Pets at a time, let them flow, not caring in the least about what they were supposed to return.
With all this measures were not sufficient then the money that was meant to improve infrastructure in the region, purchased the cattle in the neighboring regions, and has passed 150 thousand tons of meat (three times more than last reporting period).
"Achievement" in style "because I can, when I want" endlessly praised Khrushchev – the years of the reign of Nikita Sergeyevich generally characterized by a pompous and praises a very sharp censure. And then came the thunder!
The number of collective herds in the result of implementation of "advanced ideas" decreased three times – in 1960, the region was able to procure only 30 thousand tons of meat (instead of 180!). In addition, the offended farmers who lost their cattle, refused to work – the production of grain fell by half.
Autumn to hide the situation became impossible. Larionov, seeking to avoid a trial, was shot, but the consequences for the economy of the region could not be correct as radical.
Another example of dubious "achievements" can serve as the proverbial "virgin soil upturned", which is the problem with grain production in the long term, not solved, but has created a new – in animal husbandry and ecology.
There is a silver lining
With all this, there were undoubted successes. Housing policies can and should be considered successful. Even in "Khrushchev" no soundproofing, the layout was (and is) terrible, and the ergonomics – zero, but millions of Soviet citizens who got the opportunity to live in their own, not in a communal apartment, Khrushchev's policy in this direction could only be pleased.
Under Nikita Sergeyevich actively developing space industry – launched the first satellite, took place the famous Gagarin's flight.
Of course, the main achievement of Nikita is the exposure of Stalin's crimes and rehabilitation of convicts innocent people. Was it a manifestation of personal courage or the desire to divert attention from their own failed policies. But the fact that it happened was a huge boon to Soviet society.
Today, when pupils or students are asked: enter the years of Khrushchev's rule, they can't imagine how much these figures 1954-1964 – is human joy from the fact that the long-awaited justice still prevailed.
At this time, the Soviet regime faltered, took a living, human form.
It happened largely due to the personality of Nikita Khrushchev – he was charming and simple, diplomatic Protocol didn't bother. Numerous statements by Soviet leaders such as "Kuz'kinu mother" is known even to schoolchildren.
However, the good-natured sort of way, though not too educated guys in the case of Khrushchev deeply flawed. He was a tough, even cruel – when it happened and the shooting in Novocherkassk (26 people died), and the suppression of the uprising in Hungary.
Individual glory has earned Khrushchev as a "patron" of art. In 1962, the Arena was opened the exhibition of the avant-garde, which Nikita Khrushchev visited and, unfortunately, the plan of the Creator is not understood. Plated swearing artists and organizers of the exhibition and ordered the objectionable phenomenon of the Soviet art to uproot.
One of a kind
The sunset of his political career, Khrushchev was the result of a conspiracy of the Communist party, headed by Brezhnev. This attempt to get rid of the odious General Secretary was the second.
In 1957, Kaganovich, Molotov and Malenkov at the session of the Presidium of the Central Committee has taken the first. Then, Nikita Zhukov supported, achieving the transfer of solutions at the hastily convened Plenum and the first (and last) time did not support the Bureau. The reign of Khrushchev N. With. did not end there.
Once again "distinguished" by Nikita Khrushchev in 1964, becoming the only Soviet leader who left office alive. Then Zhukov nothing could not help, Khrushchev sent a Marshal to resign in 1958, added to the so-called "anti-party group" (along with all who opposed him on the memorable Podium).