In world history there are many examples, when the result of the struggle for the throne of any state came to power usurpers and impostors, who had no right to take the throne. In Russian history there is a similar very dramatic example is Grigory otrepyev (false Dmitriy I). He was pretending to be Dmitry of Uglich, son of the deceased Ivan the terrible. This man rules by the Russian government in 1605-1606.
Ancestors of Gregory belonged to a noble but impoverished family, and arrived in the Russian lands from Lithuania. Some of them settled in Galicia, while others settled in Florida – there just was the residence of the deceased Dmitriy Ivanovich. In 1577 Bogdan tow, who at that time was 15 years old, together with his elder brother received the estate Kolomna. A few years later Bogdan was born the son of Yuri – about this time came to light and the Tsarevich Dmitri Ivanovich.
Yuriy's father, when the son was still very young, killed in a drunken brawl. For his education came from the mother she had taught the boy to read the Scriptures, then he was sent to relatives in Moscow, where he continued his studies. Son-in-law Otrepiev, writ the clerk of the Family Efimiev, trained Yuri calligraphic handwriting. By the way, it was a very good student and learned knowledge with remarkable ease – on this occasion, said he had been communicating with evil spirits.
The future Tsar false Dmitry had a somewhat violent temper, and in his youth so generally the reputation of a dissolute scoundrel. But his ability helped him to enter the service of the boyar Mikhail Romanov, whose family, incidentally, many believed the rightful heirs of the crown. Given the poverty and orphanhood, rags could hardly expect to make a good career. Therefore, service in the court of the Romanovs can be considered a gift. which, in the end, almost ruined Otrepiev.
In the country there was a struggle for the throne – in 1600 of the Romanov family were subjected to repression. Just came to power Boris Godunov sent them to the monastery, and all who were in their service, expecting the gallows.
Tonsure in monks
To avoid the death penalty, otrepyev by had to hide in Zheleznoborovsk monastery. There he apparently became a monk and took the name Gregory. Presumably, at the time he was 20 years old. The newly minted monk also visited the Spaso-Efimiev monastery. However, the life of a humble monk came to him, and after a while he decided to return to Moscow.
The Romanovs were exiled to Siberia, and the hype associated with apalai, subsided. Being tonsured a monk, Grigory otrepyev had hoped that his appearance in Moscow will go unnoticed. Here, one his cousin spoke for Gregory the word, and the one adopted in the Chudov monastery.
In a new place rags showed their best side, and during the year have been in the retinue of the Patriarch job. He, in the composition of the staff of assistants, was at the Cathedral and in the Duma. Thanks to his abilities and bright nature, he was able to achieve recognition and high status.
And again, flight
It is not known what then was Grishka Otrepiev mind, but he began, casually, to inquire from others about the details of the death of Tsarevich Dmitry, was interested in the rules of courtly etiquette. He also openly argued that could become the Tsar of Russia. Soon the rumors came to Boris Godunov, at that time ruled the country, and he ordered the presumptuous monk exiled to Kirillov monastery. However, Gregory managed to warn about it, so he left the capital.
Positives in the country, a runaway monk Grigory otrepyev in 1602 returned to Moscow, where he remained a short time, and before leaving, took with him two monks. Together, they traveled quietly, because monks no one was paying attention. The fugitives visited the Kievo-Pechersk monastery, was collecting money allegedly for the construction of the monastery, however, took them for themselves. In the end they came to Brechin to the Lithuanian Prince Adam Vishnevetsky.
History of Grigory Otrepyev
The fluent monk said to Prince Vishnevetsky that he is the surviving Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Uglich, the youngest son of Ivan the terrible. Actually it was the whole story: rags told his version that he was saved by a teacher who learned of the impending assassination attempt, for which he had to replace the Prince with another boy. While Gregory tried hard not to go into details of the story to avoid being accused of lying.
It seems that Grigory otrepyev truly was up to something serious. According to him, about this wonderful salvation, no one knew, not even his mother. The teacher, who was the Savior of the Prince, before his death left him in the care of one noble family, in which he grew up until the moment when he was advised to take the vows and take refuge in the monastery. One day, the monk supposedly discovered it to the Prince, and after that Dmitry took the decision to flee to Poland.
Different witnesses tell different versions of events. It is known that the Prince Vishnevetsky, whose support finally was able to enlist the pretender, in 1603, was notified of Sigismund III, the ruler of the Commonwealth, the latter-day heir to the Russian throne his this story is very interested. Over time Grishka Otrepiev, there were new patrons, and there were even those who supposedly recognized him as a Prince. However, some of them little worried about the fact that Grigory otrepyev – this is the real name of the latter-day Prince.
The emergence of a new force
Many of those who supported Otrepiev, was influential nobles of Poland and Lithuania, also joined them and the brothers Hripunova, who fled from Moscow in 1603, In Zaporozhye began forming a rebel army. In addition, with Tsarevich Dmitrii many associated the possibility of liberation from the feudal regime.
Visionary Gregory otrepyev knew that he had a unique opportunity to lead a popular uprising, but he had little trust in the common people, and therefore would prefer to collude with the sworn enemies of Russia – Roman Catholics have long longed to subdue Orthodox Russia to the Holy see.
In March 1604, on the orders of Sigismund III Otrepiev was taken to Krakow. There he gave the king and other patrons a lot of various promises, for example, when he takes the throne, you will have to enter in Russia to Catholicism, and send some Lithuanian magnates of the earth. Thus, the impostor began to prepare to March on the Russian capital.
Trek to Moscow
In the future, Sigismund III, who promised to act against Russia, under pressure of Polish politicians refused this idea and only provided the Gregory two-thousand army of mercenaries. With such an army on the March to the capital should not have to think. Although the impostor was supported by the don Cossacks, in General, the invasion of Russia failed. Army of mercenaries was defeated under the walls of Novgorod-Seversky, and armed only using the poles helped to hold out the false Dmitry the first time.
A famine was raging in those years, led to mass uprisings throughout the country's southern border, which played into the hands of the impostor. Ordinary people were willing to stand under the banner of the newly-born king, for whom many had high hopes. Thus the pretender Grigory Otrepiev was able to form flocked to him from the townspeople and Cossacks new army, in addition, he also armed peasants.
However, in early 1605 the army of the pretender was again broken by the Governor of the king. They even had the opportunity to pursue the false to expel him from the country or even to capture, but due to the hostile attitude of a significant part of the population, they have not used this chance.
Further development of the situation
Tsar Boris Godunov seriously afraid of the pretender. It is known that he sent to the assassins and even tried to find out from the mother of Dmitry Urickogo the truth about her son. April 13, 1605, Godunov died. It was said that he took poison, but it was officially announced that the cause of death was apoplexy.
At this time, Grigory otrepyev, gain strength, went on the offensive on Moscow. He was sent to the capital city messengers, heralding the return of the legitimate king, why Moscow has become like a beehive – the people prepared to meet the heir of Ivan the terrible, many took up arms, and the family of Godunov to preserve them faithful to the nobles locked themselves in the Kremlin. When the crowd filled the Red square, the king's archers were not able to resist it. The boyars who betrayed Godunov, unlocked the gates, the crowd broke into the Kremlin and began to RAID the yards of the Royal family.
Ascension to the throne
Before entering to Moscow false Dmitry took care of eliminating some of the problems that troubled his obstacles. He sent his man to the capital and ordered him to execute the remaining members of the family of Boris Godunov. Was also exiled to the monastery of the Patriarch job. With these events began the reign of the false Dmitry 1, solemnly entered Moscow 20 Jul 1605
Despite the fact that Otrepiev enjoyed considerable support from both the people and the boyars, he soon became aware of the conspiracy of the latter against him.
Shuiski, who was accused of spreading rumors that the king is like an impostor, was sentenced Cathedral to the death penalty. False Dmitry I pardoned him and exiled from the capital, and soon all was forgiven and allowed him to return to Moscow.
According to sources, the tow was very energetic and capable leader. He started to be a lot of reforms, wanted to unite the European States to fight against Turkey. He did not become a puppet in the hands of the Pope, the Jesuits and Sigismund III, refused to enter the Russian Catholicism and to give Poland the promised land, and for their poles the aid of false Dmitry was offered a reward. 8 may 1606, married a Polish member of szlachta Marina Mnishek.
Death of an impostor
Although the false Dmitry I was popular among the Muscovites, they are very irritated arrived in the capital foreigners from the Suite Mnishek. Their customs and costumes differed to the local and behavior left much to be desired. Taking advantage of the dissatisfaction in the night from 16 to 17 may rebellious nobles under the leadership of the same Basil Shuisky raised the alarm and incited citizens to the poles, and themselves broke into the Kremlin.
When the Tsar false Dmitry realized that he was in danger, he tried to escape from his pursuers, but they still caught up with the impostor, and boyar son Valuev shot him. So ended the reign of the false Dmitry 1: people said that the king was “fake”. After all this, his body was burned, and the ashes loaded into the gun and shot them in the direction of Poland – whence he came.
All this happened in the time of Troubles, when Russia was a struggle for the throne, the nobles sought to increase their influence, and the economy of the state, for various reasons, was not in the best condition. As for the false Dmitry, some historians still Express an opinion that runaway monk Grigory or Grigori otrepyev, really could be the youngest son of Ivan the terrible – Dmitry of Uglich.