In life, there necessarily comes a time when a person loses the ability to work. It is not so important, for what reasons it happens, whether because of the onset of venerable age, or whether the work capacity was lost due to illness, but independent search for livelihoods becomes problematic. It is for this purpose that the Russian Federation government provides for a pension insurance system.
What it happens and what should every citizen know about this issue? Let's understand.
Compulsory pension insurance
To date, the pension system is almost the only one in Russia, which undergoes changes almost every year. Nevertheless, the main kind was and remains mandatory state pension insurance - a system of state payments of labor pensions to citizens who have lost the ability to work. The accumulation of funds for the implementation of such payments is carried out at the expense of employers who make monthly contributions to the Pension Fund.
The fundamentals of state regulation in the system of TSOs are established in accordance with the law "On Mandatory Pension Insurance in the Russian Federation" No. 167-FZ of December 15, This document determines the legal status of the OPS subjects, their basic rights, duties and degree of responsibility. In addition, the pension insurance of the Russian Federation is regulated:
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation.
- Federal Law No. 173 "On Labor Pensions in the Russian Federation", in force as of 28.12.13.
- "On the basis of compulsory social. insurance "- Federal Law №165, edition 01.12.14.
- № 27 - ФЗ from 01.04.96, "On individual accounting in the mandatory pension insurance system".
- ФЗ № 272 of 16.10.10, "On insurance contributions to the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation, the Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation, the Federal Fund of Compulsory Medical Insurance. insurance and territorial funds of compulsory medical insurance. insurance ".
- Some other laws and regulations adopted on their basis.
Based on the legislation of the Russian Federation, pension insurance in Russia is carried out by the insurer, which can be either state (FIU) or non-state.
The state insurer is the FIU (Pension Fund of Russia), which has an extensive network of territorial offices, which constitutes a single integrated mechanism.
Along with the Pension Fund, non-state pension funds may also act as insurers under the OPS, whose activities are strictly controlled and regulated by law. Federal laws of the Russian Federation clearly define the procedure for the formation of pension savings, the possibility of their investment, the procedure for payment, as well as the amount and timing of insurance premiums. Regardless of the status of the insurer, he has both rights and responsibilities.
- require the tax authorities to provide information about the insured persons and policyholders (including confidential information), if this is necessary for the implementation of compulsory pension insurance;
- carry out inspections related to the calculation, payment and recalculation of insurance coverage, receive information on individual records of the insured;
- in case of detection of violations, require the heads of enterprises to independently eliminate them;
- to make return of the made insurance payments back to insurers in the event that it is not possible to establish, for what exactly insured persons they are paid;
- to independently manage the funds of the RF PF, as well as to control the legality of their expenditure.
- to hold free consultations and timely inform on innovations in the field of pension insurance;
- conduct a data bank of policyholders and natural persons participating in the system of TSOs on a voluntary basis;
- to calculate and ensure the timely payment of labor pensions and other payments provided for by the pension system of the Russian Federation;
- to control the documentation in the sphere of pension insurance, and also to guarantee the targeted use of funds;
- to register insurers, as well as to take them off the register;
- to formulate the budget of the Russian Federation budget and ensure its implementation;
- promptly offer a justification for the tariff of insurance contributions, carry out a qualitative accounting of funds and inform all participants of the process of their financial condition.
No pension insurance would be possible without another participant in the process - the policyholder, which may be an organization, an individual entrepreneur or an individual who makes monthly contributions to the Pension Fund.
- participate in the TSO through their representatives;
- defend their rights in court;
- to demand from the insurer gratuitous provision of information on the amount of insurance coverage paid to the insured person for which he performed insurance contributions;
- timely receive from the insurer information on changes in legislation in the sphere of OPS.
- to transfer insurance premiums to the PF in a timely and in the fullest extent;
- to immediately eliminate violations found during inspections;
- provide documents to the PF to ensure the maintenance of personalized records and the timely calculation of insurance coverage.
Citizens of Russia, foreigners or stateless persons who temporarily or permanently reside on the territory of the Russian Federation who, according to the law, have the right to mandatory pension insurance, are classified as insured persons.
- in a timely and sufficient amount to receive payments from TSOs formed at the expense of money resources of the RF Pension Fund;
- defend the rights in court;
- on the first request to receive information on the number of deductions to the PF and the timeliness of their payment.
- to present documents containing extremely reliable information as the basis for calculating pension;
- timely inform the insurer of any changes that may affect the amount and procedure for payment of insurance premiums.
Insurance certificate of the obligatory PS system
To fix your right to state pension insurance, you must obtain a special insurance certificate confirming the registration of the insured person. This document is unique for each participant of the pension program, by the number of the personal account in the database information is entered about all contributions made by the employer throughout the entire work activity. Subsequently, this will be the basis for calculating and calculating the labor pension.
You can get a personal insurance pension certificate in any territorial office of the Russian Federation for a month from the date of application or by writing an application at the place of work. The citizen is responsible for the testimony himself. After the conclusion of the employment contract with the employee, the policyholder removes his copy or rewrites the number, according to which the deductions are made.
Contributions to OPS
In addition to the state system of TSOs, there is also social pension insurance on a voluntary basis, conducted by non-state pension funds. When addressing there, a citizen decides on the need for additional financing of a personal pension in the future. This type of insurance can be implemented by private pension funds or private insurance companies. What is different about insurance pension insurance:
- there is a possibility to choose a variety of insurance programs;
- you can independently choose the monthly or quarterly nature of payments;
- the client independently determines the amount of money that will be paid at the end of the contract;
- you can independently adjust the size and order of payments.
This type of pension insurance is not mandatory, the contract is exclusively on a voluntary basis. He absolutely does not abolish the state pension insurance, but is an addition to it.
Formation of funded pension
Today, pension insurance offers citizens a division of the pension into two parts: compulsory, for which the state is responsible, and accumulative, transferred to the management of non-state funds. It is not worth worrying about, the activities of the APF are carefully controlled by the state. Such funds not only commit themselves to retain the pension contributions of a citizen, but also commit to multiplying them by investing in various areas through management companies. Thus, upon reaching the retirement age, a citizen has the right to rely on solid dividends.
How to manage the pension yourself
In order to use the funded part of the pension, you must personally apply to a non-state pension insurance fund or an insurance company and conclude an appropriate contract (carry an insurance certificate and a passport with you). It is also necessary to contact the territorial branch of the PF and write a statement on the transfer to the APF.
If the selected pension insurance fund does not suit you with something, you have the right to transfer to a service in another company. To do this, you need to write a standard statement and conclude an agreement with another insurer. You can do this every year from 01.09 to 31.12, but if you are 5 or less years old before retirement, you lose that right. The cumulative part of the pension is also interesting because the right to it in case of death of the insured person passes to the successors, a statement about this can be submitted to the APF at any time.