Under the green fertilizers or green manure crops, means plant fresh weight used in the role of replenishment of fertile soil. Green manures have a high concentration of organic elements, relocating them from the deep soil to the upper layers, thereby improving the properties of humus. The assimilation of such elements is much faster than other substances. One of the plants that are suitable for the fertilizing of the soil is mustard.
As a fertilizer this crop is twice as effective manure that has low cost and complexity, reduces herbicide use, and the amount of weeding. The advantage of the plant is its function in the rotation. In the root secretions of mustard fit organic acid, which, reacting with the soil, transformerait a number of nutrients from unavailable in an easily digestible.
As affected by green manure to the soil
Green manures have a high level of nutrients, they create obstacles to the leaching of nutrient mixtures for the border of root layer. Also, this kind of crop takes nutrients from the deep soil to the upper layers, thereby facilitating the process of accumulation of humus, which improves soil properties.
It is known that the higher the concentration of humus, the less conductivity and more thermal capacity. The physical evaporation of water resulting in reduced, and therefore cultivated plants are starting to productively use the water.
The microflora is developing intensively through high humus content, as green manure in the soil decompose faster than other organic matter with a high content of fiber.
Description of white mustard
Mustard as a fertilizer is a plant-a honey plant belonging to the family Cruciferae, is an annual oilseed species. The culture peculiar ability to release insoluble phosphates.
Plant height ranges from 25 to 80 cm Stem erect, branched upward, with the structure of hard fiber. The leaves of the mustard consist of blades with sharp borders. The flowers are white or pale yellow color are collected in inflorescence which can be up to one hundred, have a honey aroma. Pollinate plants insects.
The flowering period of this crop is June-July. Mustard Matures in August. The fruit has the appearance of a pod of white color with a round pale-yellow seeds. Ripe fruits do not crack, so the harvesting of Mature plants is performed by the processor after the pods become brown and yellow.
The characteristic features of the culture is light and vlagalishe, although it is quite unpretentious – rises and grows at cool temperatures, low to the ground.
Homeland and spread of the plant
Spread white mustard in Europe, India, America and Japan from the Mediterranean. As weeds found throughout the territory of Russia, except for Northern regions. The main place of its growth are fields and roadsides.
The emergence and growth of the mustard seed occurs in all soils (acid, alkaline). The crops can withstand light frosts down to -5 degrees Celsius and -3 when the seeds begin to germinate.
The cultivation of mustard fertilizer
Mustard to fertilize the soil is sown, germinates and mowed, while in the green mass before flowering, as in the ripening period decreases its intrinsic value, and by seeds only clutter up the garden.
Planting of plants as green manure and its incorporation is the period from 55 to 70 days to ten weeks. To ensure that the culture was rotting during, the fall it is better to dispose of the soil and was added dropwise.
Earthen cover sowing of mustard only vzryhlite to a depth of 15 cm (depending on soil type) using the rake. While the basis for the planting of the plants should have a fine-grained structure.
Before digging fertilizer culture should be treated with a solution of “Baikal-EM1” in a ratio of one to five hundred. For the formation of humus, the fertile layer of the soil requires sufficient moisture. In this case, the mustard quickly rot in the soil, as it has a good ratio of nitrogen and carbon compounds and a small level of roughage.
Phytosanitary characteristics of mustard
Mustard as a fertilizer has phytosanitary properties, due to which decreases the infection of cultivated plants the following diseases: late blight, Fusarium rot, scab and Rhizoctonia to the club. These diseases are particularly damaging to potatoes.
If you hold with incorporation of mustard later in the fall, there is a destruction and a decrease in the number of pests such as wireworm, because of the breach of its hibernation.
Seeding rate plants
Seed rate of mustard for green manure is from 2.5 to 4 g/sqm, depth of loosening soil – 8-15 see
The sowing is done with the help of rake, which is the fruit of the plant is slightly buried in the soil.
With the aim of improving the efficiency of the removal of the wireworm rate of use of mustard seed increased to 5 g/sq. m.
Planting of the following crops should be carried out not earlier than in three to four weeks after incorporation of green manure crops.
The periods of sowing of mustard to the fertilizer
Many gardeners interested in the question: “When to plant mustard as a fertilizer?” The plant is sown and buried in the ground two or three times per season. The last planting is in the fall, about six weeks before frost. With mustard crop is sowed as fertilizer after harvest or in early spring, about a month before planting potatoes and other vegetables. Although the most favorable time for sowing is the time immediately after harvest in the presence of moist soil, then the seeds germinate fairly quickly.
Seeds are sown to a depth of two inches in rows or completely. Observed shoots on the third or fourth day.
Upon expiration of the term (up to six months), the plant grows to a height of 15-20 cm is then pruned (mowed) and produce a fertilizer of the soil.
Features of cultivation of mustard as green manure
The most important rule of organic farming is that land should not be without vegetation.
For sale is a packing of mustard seeds 250 g. This amount is calculated on seeding one hundred garden.
Mustard is especially useful for awkward garden, suburban areas, located on the slopes, as these areas of disturbed wind and water erosion of the soil. Mustard as a green manure significantly reduces and prevents data adverse event, especially in the period when the harvest is over, and the soil is left open to erosion.
You should know that the sowing of mustard to fertilization eliminates its alternation with other vegetables belonging to the family Cruciferae. For example, you cannot sow the crop after cabbage, radishes, turnips, radish, etc., or in front of them. The prohibition is justified by the fact that plants of the same species susceptible to common diseases and pests.
Order green manure yielded the expected effect, the soil should contain enough beneficial microflora. If the site soil is exhausted, before using green fertilizers it should be biologics for the processing of crops.