Homeostasis is a self-regulating process in which all biological systems tend to maintain stability during the period of adaptation to certain conditions optimal for survival. Any system, being in a dynamic equilibrium, tends to achieve a stable state that resists external factors and irritants.
The concept of homeostasis
All body systems must work together to maintain proper homeostasis within the body. Homeostasis is regulation in the body of such indicators as temperature, water content and carbon dioxide level. For example, diabetes is a condition in which the body can not regulate the level of glucose in the blood.
Homeostasis is a term that is used both to describe the existence of organisms in an ecosystem, and to describe the successful functioning of cells within the body. Organisms and populations can maintain homeostasis while maintaining a stable level of fertility and mortality.
Feedback is a process that occurs when the body's systems need to slow down or completely stop. When a person eats, food enters the stomach, and digestion begins. In the intervals between meals, the stomach should not work. The digestive system works with a series of hormones and nerve impulses to stop and begin the production of acid secretion in the stomach.
Another example of negative feedback can be observed in case of an increase in body temperature. The regulation of homeostasis is manifested by perspiration, a protective reaction of the body to overheating. Thus, the temperature rise stops, and the problem of overheating is neutralized. In the case of hypothermia, the body also provides for a number of measures taken in order to keep warm.
Maintenance of internal balance
Homeostasis can be defined as a property of an organism or system that helps it maintain specified parameters within the normal range of values. This is the key to life, and the wrong balance in maintaining homeostasis can lead to diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.
Homeostasis is a key element in understanding how the human body works. This formal definition characterizes a system that regulates its internal environment and seeks to maintain the stability and regularity of all processes occurring in the body.
Homeostatic regulation: body temperature
Controlling body temperature in humans is a good example of homeostasis in a biological system. When a person is healthy, his body temperature fluctuates around + 37 ° C, but various factors can affect this value, including hormones, metabolic rate and various diseases that cause fever.
In the body, the regulation of temperature is controlled in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Through the bloodstream to the brain, there is a flow of signals about temperature indicators, as well as analysis of the results of data on the frequency of breathing, blood sugar and metabolism. The loss of heat in the human body also contributes to a decrease in activity.
No matter how much water a person drinks, the body does not swell up like a balloon, and the human body does not wrinkle like raisins if you drink very little. Probably someone once thought about it at least once. Either way, the body knows how much fluid to keep in order to maintain the desired level.
The concentration of salt and glucose (sugar) in the body is maintained at a constant level (in the absence of negative factors), the amount of blood in the body is about 5 liters.
Regulation of blood sugar level
Glucose is a type of sugar that is contained in the blood. The proper level of glucose should be maintained in the human body in order for a person to remain healthy. When the glucose level becomes too high, the pancreas produces an insulin hormone.
If the blood glucose level falls too low, the liver converts glycogen in the blood, thereby increasing the level of sugar. When pathogens or viruses enter the body, they begin to fight the infection before pathogens can lead to any health problems.
Pressure under control
Maintaining a healthy blood pressure is also an example of homeostasis. The heart can feel changes in blood pressure and send signals to the brain for treatment. Further, the brain sends back the signal to the heart with instructions on how to react correctly. If the blood pressure is too high, it must be reduced.
How is homeostasis achieved?
How does the human body regulate all systems and organs and compensate for the ongoing changes in the environment? This is due to the presence of many natural sensors that control temperature, salt composition of blood, blood pressure and many other parameters. These detectors send signals to the brain, to the main control center, in case some values deviate from the norm. After that, compensatory measures are started to restore the normal state.
Maintaining homeostasis is incredibly important for the body. The human body contains a certain amount of chemicals known as acids and alkalis, their correct balance is necessary for the optimal functioning of all organs and systems of the body. The level of calcium in the blood should be maintained at the proper level. Since breathing is involuntary, the nervous system provides the body with much-needed oxygen. When toxins get into your blood, they disrupt the body's homeostasis. The human body reacts to this disorder with the help of the urinary system.
It is important to emphasize that the body's homeostasis works automatically if the system functions normally. For example, the reaction to heating - the skin reddens, because its small blood vessels automatically expand. Shivering is a reaction to cooling. Thus, homeostasis is not a set of organs, but a synthesis and balance of bodily functions. Together, this allows you to maintain the entire body in a stable state.