Homeostasis is a self-regulating process in which all biological systems strive to maintain stability during the period of adaptation to certain conditions that are optimal for survival. Any system, being in dynamic equilibrium, strives to achieve a steady state that resists external factors and stimuli.
Concept of homeostasis
All body systems must work together to maintain proper homeostasis within the body. Homeostasis is the regulation in the body of indicators such as temperature, water content and carbon dioxide levels. For example, diabetes is a condition in which the body can not regulate the level of glucose in the blood.
Homeostasis is a term that is used both to describe the existence of organisms in an ecosystem, and to describe the successful functioning of cells within an organism. Organisms and populations can maintain homeostasis while maintaining a stable level of fertility and mortality.
Feedback is a process that occurs when the body’s systems need to be slowed down or completely stopped. When a person eats, food enters the stomach, and digestion begins. In between meals, the stomach should not work. The digestive system works with a series of hormones and nerve impulses to stop and begin the production of acid secretion in the stomach.
Another example of negative feedback can be observed in case of a rise in body temperature. Regulation of homeostasis is manifested by perspiration, a protective reaction of the body to overheating. Thus, the temperature rise stops, and the problem of overheating is neutralized. In the case of hypothermia, the body also has a number of measures taken to keep warm.
Maintaining internal balance
Homeostasis can be defined as a property of the organism or system that helps it maintain the specified parameters within the normal range of values. This is the key to life, and the wrong balance in maintaining homeostasis can lead to diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.
Homeostasis is a key element in understanding how the human body works. Such a formal definition characterizes a system that regulates its internal environment and seeks to maintain the stability and regularity of all processes occurring in the body.
Homeostatic regulation: body temperature
The control of body temperature in humans is a good example of homeostasis in a biological system. When a person is healthy, his body temperature fluctuates around the value of + 37 ° C, but various factors can affect this value, including hormones, metabolic rate and various diseases that cause a rise in temperature.
In the body, temperature regulation is controlled in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Through the bloodstream to the brain, signals are received on temperature indicators, as well as the analysis of the results of data on respiratory rate, blood sugar levels and metabolism. The loss of heat in the human body also contributes to a decrease in activity.
Regardless of how much water a person drinks, the body does not swell like a balloon, nor does a person’s body shrink like a raisin if you drink very little. Probably, someone once thought about it at least once. Anyway, the body knows how much fluid needs to be maintained to maintain the desired level.
The concentration of salt and glucose (sugar) in the body is maintained at a constant level (in the absence of negative factors), the amount of blood in the body is about 5 liters.
Regulation of blood sugar
Glucose is a type of sugar found in the blood. The human body must maintain proper glucose levels in order for a person to stay healthy. When glucose levels get too high, the pancreas produces the hormone insulin.
If the level of glucose in the blood falls too low, the liver converts glycogen in the blood, thereby increasing the sugar level. When pathogenic bacteria or viruses enter the body, it begins to fight the infection before the pathogenic elements can lead to any health problems.
Pressure under control
Maintaining healthy blood pressure is also an example of homeostasis. The heart can sense changes in blood pressure and send signals to the brain for processing. Then the brain sends back a signal to the heart with instructions on how to respond correctly. If the blood pressure is too high, it should be lowered.
How is homeostasis achieved?
How does the human body regulate all systems and organs and compensate for changes in the environment? This is due to the presence of many natural sensors that monitor temperature, saline composition of blood, blood pressure, and many other parameters. These detectors send signals to the brain, to the main control center, in case some values deviate from the norm. After that, compensatory measures are launched to restore the normal state.
Maintaining homeostasis is extremely important for the body. The human body contains a certain amount of chemicals known as acids and alkalis, their proper balance is necessary for the optimal functioning of all organs and systems of the body. The level of calcium in the blood must be maintained at the proper level. Since breathing is involuntary, the nervous system provides the body with much-needed oxygen. When the toxins enter your bloodstream, they disrupt the body's homeostasis. The human body responds to this disorder with the help of the urinary system.
It is important to emphasize that the homeostasis of the body works automatically if the system is functioning normally. For example, the reaction to heat - the skin turns red, because its small blood vessels automatically expand. Shivering is a response to cooling. Thus, homeostasis is not a set of organs, but the synthesis and balance of bodily functions. Together, this allows the whole body to be kept in a stable condition.