Spanish is one of the most common in the world, both among those for whom this language is native and among those who speak it as a second language. According to various estimates, about 500 million people all over the world are actively using Spanish and a few tens of thousands are free to speak it. Spanish language has simple phonetics and intonation, however, multi-structural grammar, in particular, a large number of tenses and different verbal forms, which causes some difficulties in its study.
A brief description of the verb in Spanish
In terms of its structure, this language is analytic as well as inflectional, which is largely inherited from Latin. These characteristics appear primarily in verb forms. The conjugation of Spanish verbs occurs in 14 grammatical tenses and in four moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, and imperative. In addition to this, there are also two tolls: valid and passive, as well as non-personal verb forms: gerund, infinitive, and past participle of the passive voice.
Structure of the Spanish verb system
The Spanish verb has the following distinctive categories:
Accordingly, the conjugation of verbs in Spanish is carried out according to numbers, persons, tenses and moods. The language is also characterized by the presence of a valid and passive voice, which indicate the direction of certain actions in relation to the subject. Infinitive or impersonal verbal forms such as past participle, gerund and infinitive are actively used.
All tense forms of the verb can be divided into simple and complex. For simple tense forms, a change in the end of the verb and sometimes the root stem is characteristic. As for the complex tense forms in the language, the auxiliary verb is used to form them.haber .
Verb Declinations in Spanish
The conjugation of Spanish verbs also depends on the mood: indicative, subjunctive and imperative. Each mood has its own functions and structure.
The indicative mood describes an action that is real in the present, future, and past tense. The subjunctive mood describes some possibility, necessity, or desire. Most often the subjunctive is used in clauses of the subordinate type. Conditional mood describes actions that are likely in the present, future, or past under certain conditions. The imperative mood calls for action or, on the contrary, forbids it.
Modern Spanish has a lot of temporal forms, which is typical not only for him, but also for other Romance languages. A large number of tenses directly affects verb forms. Accordingly, the following tenses exist in the indicative and subjunctive mood:
- Futuro simple / imperfecto;
- Futuro perfecto;
- Pretérito perfecto;
- Pretérito indefinido;
- Pretérito imperfecto;
- Pretérito pluscuamperfecto;
- Pretérito anterior.
The conditional mood has two forms - simple and complex, while the imperative - positive and negative.
Pledge in Spanish
In Spanish, there are two types of pledge: valid and passive. The difference is that in the first case, the subject performs some action, then in the second embodiment, it is the object of this action.
In Spanish, the passive voice can only be used with transitive verbs. The very form of the passive voice is formed by the auxiliary verbser and the corresponding participle.
The conjugation of Spanish verbs in both the real and the passive voice depends on their type and group. There are regular, or regular, and irregular, or irregular verbs, and also verbs of individual conjugations. Each type has its own characteristics.
Regular verbs, or verbs of regular conjugation, are divided into three groups:
- Class I - with the ending –ar;
- Class II - ending in –er;
- Class III - with the ending –ir.
The conjugation of Spanish verbs of the correct type is characterized by changing only the end of the verb. Accordingly, you need to remember the endings for each group, person and number and conjugate the verbs in accordance with this.
Conjugation of irregular verbs
The conjugation of irregular Spanish verbs is different in that in addition to the end of the verb, the root can also change. Depending on the characteristics of these changes, the following groups of irregular verbs are distinguished.
- This includes verbs 1 and 2 of conjugation type, in which the root vowel is replaced by diphthong under the stress. For example,e becomesie ; o turns intoue and etc.
- Verbs 3 conjugations in which the stressed vowel changes toi. Changes in this plan are characteristic of the past and present.
- This group includes 3 verb conjugations with the following endings: -entir. –erir. –ertir. When conjugated, the vowele goes to diphthongie. Conjugation is similarly characteristic of the present and past tense of the indicative and subjunctive mood
- This group includes verbs that under stress change the root vowelabout onue. This is typical of such temporary forms as the present tense of indicative, the present tense of the subjunctive and the elapsed time of the subjunctive tense.
- This group includes all verbs with the ending -cer (except the verbhacer ) and -ducir. The conjugation of the Spanish verbs of this group is done by replacingwith onzc in the present tense of indicative and subjunctive mood. As for verbs with the ending -ducir. then in this casewith changing toj in the past incomplete subjunctive tense and simple past tense.
- The last group includes verbs with the ending -uir. which, when conjugated, receive an extra vowel -a, -e, -o. This can be observed in the present and past tense of the indicative and subjunctive mood.
The category of verbs of irregular conjugation is one of the most extensive and most active in Spanish.
Verb Conjugation Verbs
Individual verb verbs deserve special attention. Spanish is characterized by the fact that there are relatively few such verbs, but they play a very important role in the grammar of the language. As the name implies, the verbs of individual declension are not subject to any rules, and all their tense forms need to be memorized separately.
Here are some of the most actively used verbs with individual conjugations in Presente Indicativo.
- Conjugation of the verb dar:doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan.
- Conjugation of the Spanish verb ser:soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son.
- Verb conjugation of estar:estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están.
- Verb Decir Conjugation:digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen.
- Verb conjugation haber:he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han.
- Conjugation of the Spanish verb ir:voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van and etc.
Individual conjugation verbs can change their form according to their faces, numbers, and tense.
Personal and impersonal verb forms in Spanish
The conjugation of Spanish verbs (past tense and present tense) also affects personal and impersonal verb forms. Personal forms of the verbs, in particular their endings, indicate such grammatical categories as face, number, mood, and voice. Accordingly, the verb in Spanish can reflect three faces and two numbers - the plural and the singular.
In Spanish, there are also impersonal forms that do not have a category of person. These forms include the infinitive, gerund and participle. The infinitive is the initial form of the verb and can have two forms: simple, where only one semantic word is used, and complex, where other auxiliary verbs are also present. A gerund simultaneously combines two parts of speech - a verb and a naming. Gerund also occurs in two forms, which are formed by different endings. As for the participle, it carries the characteristics of the verb and the adjective.
The structure of Spanish verbs is distinguished by its diversity, high inflectionality and a large number of tense forms. The verb is also affected by categories such as person, number, mood and voice, which have their own characteristics in different tenses. The presence of a large number of tenses, moods and voices requires the formation of different forms for verbs, which is the reason for the extensive verb conjugation system in Spanish. Despite this, most verbs are conjugated according to certain rules, and the number of irregular forms requiring separate memorization is relatively small.