Spanish is one of the most popular in the world among those for whom this language is native, and among those who speak it as second language. According to various estimates, around 500 million people worldwide actively use the Spanish language and a few tens of thousands can freely speak it. Spanish has simple phonetics and intonation, however, multi-structure grammar, in particular, a large number of times and different verb forms, which causes some difficulties when studying.
Brief description of the verb in the Spanish language
In its structure this language is analytical and inflected, largely inherited from Latin. These characteristics are manifested primarily in verbal forms. Conjugation Spanish verbs occur in grammatical 14 times and in four moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional and imperative. In addition, there are also two voices: active and passive, and impersonal verb forms: gerund, infinitive and past participle the passive voice.
The structure of the system of the Spanish verb
Spanish verb has the following distinctive categories:
Accordingly, conjugation of verbs in the Spanish language is carried out according to the numbers, persons, times and moods. For a language also characterized by the presence of a valid passive voice, which denote the orientation of certain actions in relation to the subject. Widely used infinitive or impersonal verb forms such as past participle, the gerund and the infinitive.
All temporary forms of the verb can be divided into simple and complex. For simple tense forms is characterized by the change of the end of the verb, and sometimes the root base. Case of complex tense forms in the language, then their education is used the auxiliary verb haber .
The verb in the Spanish language
Conjugation of Spanish verbs also depends on the mood: indicative, subjunctive and imperative. Every inclination has its own function and structure.
Indicative mood describes an action that really in the present, future and past time. The subjunctive mood describes some ability, need or desire. Most often the subjunctive is used in sentences subordinate type. The conditional mood describes actions that are probable in the present, future or past under certain conditions. Imperative call to action, or, on the contrary, it prohibits.
Times in Spanish
Modern Spanish has quite a lot of temporary forms, which is typical not only for him but also for other romance languages. A large number of times directly affects verb forms. In line with this, the indicative and the subjunctive are as follows:
- Futuro simple/imperfecto
- Futuro perfecto
- Pretérito perfecto
- Pretérito indefinido
- Pretérito imperfecto
- Pretérito pluscuamperfecto
- Pretérito anterior.
The conditional mood has two forms – simple and complex, whereas the imperative – positive and negative.
Bail in Spanish
In Spanish there are two types of security: active and passive. The difference is that in the first case, the subject performs some action, then as in the second embodiment it is the object of the action.
In Spanish the passive voice can be used only with transitive verbs. The very form of the passive voice is formed with the auxiliary verb ser and the corresponding sacrament.
Conjugation of Spanish verbs in present and in the passive voice depends on their type and group. Distinguish the correct or regular, and irregular, or irregular verbs, as well as the individual verb conjugations. Each type has its own characteristics.
The conjugation of regular verbs
Regular verbs, or verbs of the regular conjugations, are divided into three groups:
- Class I – with the ending –ar
- II class - ending in -er;
- Class III – ending –ir.
Conjugation of Spanish verbs the right type is characterized by change only the end of the verb. Accordingly, it is necessary to remember the end for each group, the person and number and conjugate the verbs accordingly.
Conjugation of irregular verbs
The conjugation of irregular Spanish verbs is characterized in that the end of the verb can also change the root. Depending on the specifics of these changes, we distinguish the following groups of irregular verbs.
- These include verbs 1 and 2 types of conjugation in which the root vowel under stress is replaced by the diphthong. For example, e becomes ie ; o turns into ue etc.
- Verbs have 3 conjugations which a stressed vowel is changed to i. Of such a plan change characteristic of the past and the present.
- This group includes verbs 3 conjugations with the following endings: –entir. –erir. –ertir. When conjugating vowel e goes into a diphthong ie. Conjugation in a similar way, typical for the present and the past tense indicative and subjunctive mood
- This group includes the verbs which the accent is changing the root vowel on onue. This is typical of such tense forms as present indicative, present subjunctive and past pending time subjunctive mood.
- To this group belong all verbs ending in –cer (except for the verb hacer ), and –ducir. Conjugation of the Spanish verbs in this group is the replacement with onzc in the present tense indicative and subjunctive. As for verbs with the ending –ducir. in this case with changes to j in the past incomplete time subjunctive and simple past tense.
- The last group of verbs ends in –uir. which when conjugating receive an additional vowel –a, -e, -o. It can be observed in present and past indicative and subjunctive.
Category verbs irregular conjugations is one of the largest and most active in the Spanish language.
The individual verbs conjugation
Particularly noteworthy are the individual verb conjugations. Spanish is characterized by the fact that these verbs are relatively few, but they play a very important role in the grammar of the language. As the name implies, the individual declination of verbs is not subject to any rules and all their temporary forms need to memorize separately.
Here are some of the most actively used verbs with individual conjugation in Presente Indicativo.
- Conjugation of the verb dar: doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan.
- Conjugation of the Spanish verb ser: soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son.
- Conjugation of the verb estar: estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están.
- Conjugation of the verb decir: digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen.
- Conjugation of the verb haber:he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han.
- Conjugation of the Spanish verb ir: voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van etc.
The individual conjugation verbs can change their form in the persons, numbers, and times.
Personal and impersonal forms of the verbs in the Spanish language
Conjugation Spanish verbs (past and present) also affects the personal and impersonal forms of the verbs. Personal forms of verbs, particularly their endings, to indicate such grammatical categories as person, number, tense and the collateral. Accordingly, the verb in the Spanish language can reflect three persons and two numbers – multiple and single.
In Spanish, there are also impersonal forms, which have no category of person. Such forms include the infinitive, the gerund and the participle. The infinitive is the first form of the verb and can take two forms: simple, which used only one semantic word, and complex, where there are also other auxiliary verbs. The gerund at the same time combines the two parts of speech – the verb and the naming. The gerund is also found in two forms, which are formed by means of different endings. Regarding communion, it bears the characteristics of a verb and an adjective.
The structure of the verbs of the Spanish language is diverse, high fiktivnost and a large number of tense forms. The verb is also affected by such categories as person, number, tense and the Deposit, which have their peculiarities in different times. The presence of a large number of times, moods and collateral requires the education of different forms for verbs, which is the cause of an extensive system of verb conjugations in the Spanish language. Despite this, most of the verbs conjugate according to certain rules, and the number of irregular shapes that require a separate memory, is relatively small.