In the human body control the work of all internal organs of two systems - the nervous and endocrine. If the former exercises its regulation through reflex acts, the second acts more gently with the help of secreted hormones with glands of internal secretion. They are carried with blood through the body and regulate the work of internal organs. One of the main glands is thyroid, which synthesizes many different hormones that affect different systems. When there is a shortage or an excess of them, all sorts of problems are observed. We will get acquainted with one of them. Consider hypothyroidism - symptoms and treatment in women.
What is hypothyroidism?
The thyroid gland is at one of the first places in its importance in the human body. Hormones, which it synthesizes, regulate the work of almost all organ systems. When they are produced too little, then a syndrome develops, like hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland in women.
In men, problems with this organ are much less common, but the beautiful half of humanity reacts very painfully to any changes in the hormonal background. Hypothyroidism in women may not show symptoms for a long time.
Diagnosis of the disease is complicated by the fact that at the first stages of its development, hypothyroidism resembles usual fatigue. In women, this condition can still be attributed to pregnancy or other diseases of the internal organs.
Types of the disease
If hypothyroidism is diagnosed in women, the treatment will depend on the causes and the form of the disease. Given the occurrence and development of the disease, hypothyroidism happens:
- Primary. It develops if there are problems in the thyroid itself.
- The secondary form occurs when there is a deficiency of the thyrotropin hormone, which is synthesized by the pituitary gland.
- Tertiary hypothyroidism is associated with the problems of the synthesis of the hormone tyroliberin by the hypothalamus.
- Peripheral is manifested by a decrease in the sensitivity of cells and tissues to the effects of hormones of thyroxin and triiodothyronine.
In turn, the primary hypothyroidism is divided into:
Congenital is usually associated with the pathology of the development of the thyroid gland during intrauterine development, so it releases too little hormone, or it may not be at all. There are cases of hereditary defect of the enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of hormones, the process of digestion of iodine is disrupted, and it is simply necessary for normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Hypothyroidism in women may have different symptoms depending on the nature of the disease. On this basis distinguish:
- Subclinical hypothyroidism. For a long time the symptomatology is blurred, the manifestations do not correspond to the course of the disease. Detect most often with a full survey.
- The manifest is distinguished by a vivid manifestation, a sharp increase in signs.
Many reasons can be provoked to develop the acquired hypothyroidism, which will be discussed below.
Causes of hypothyroidism
The congenital form of the disease is diagnosed right after birth, but fortunately, it is rare enough. More than 99% of cases are acquired hypothyroidism. The main reasons for its occurrence are as follows:
- Damage to the thyroid parenchyma can lead to hypothyroidism after many years.
- Complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland.
- Therapy with radioactive iodine.
These reasons cause, as a rule, irreversible changes that persist throughout life.
But there are other reasons that can cause hypothyroidism in women, the symptoms may have a different degree of manifestation:
- Insufficient intake of iodine in the body with food and water.
- Defeat of thyroid gland by viral or bacterial infection.
- When the pituitary gland is damaged.
- If the body was exposed to radiation.
- After taking medications that suppress the function of the thyroid gland.
All these causes cause reversible changes, which with appropriate treatment are completely eliminated.
Manifestations of the disease in women
At the first stages of the problem, the thyroid gland functions practically the same as in men and children. But there are also their own characteristics. Often found hypothyroidism in women after 50 years, but the problem is that at this time there is a hormonal adjustment in connection with the menopause, and it is with it that health problems are linked.
Hypothyroidism begins to manifest itself with the appearance of excess weight. And no diet and exercise does not help to reset it. There are frequent changes in mood, weakness. Women again write it all off to hormonal reorganization, so treatment is postponed, and the disease is aggravated.
In the future, if treatment is not started, the following manifestations are attached:
- There are problems with memory.
- Even minor physical exertion causes severe fatigue.
- Hair begins to fall out.
- Brittle nails become brittle.
- The skin becomes dry and acquires a yellowish hue.
If the woman has not reached the age of 45-50 years, the signs of hypothyroidism in women can be as follows:
- The menstrual cycle is violated, until termination.
- Infertility can develop in the most serious cases.
- Interruptions in the work of the heart are observed.
- Violated heart activity.
- Increases in compression in the throat, larynx and trachea.
- Appears puffiness, which extends to the internal organs, develops myxedema.
With the development of the disease, hypothyroidism is more serious in women, the photo clearly demonstrates it. Myxedema without proper treatment can provoke myxedematous coma, which is manifested by significant malfunctions in the cardiovascular system, respiratory and nervous. If you do not help in time, the patient dies from cerebral edema or lungs.
Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
If there were first signs of hypothyroidism in women, it is necessary to visit the endocrinologist urgently. The doctor, having listened to the patient, appoints a number of examinations, among which the following are of particular importance:
- A blood test in which the thyroid hormone content is determined: thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The indicators will be significantly lower than the norm, which for thyroxine is 2.6-5.7 mmol / l, and for the second - 9.0-22.0 mmol / l. Also determine the content of pituitary hormones to determine with accuracy, primary hypothyroidism or secondary.
- A blood test for the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and thyreperoxidase. If they are significantly increased, then there are autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
- Recently, the method of scintigraphy is quite popular. A woman is given inside a certain amount of labeled iodine, and after 24 hours is scanned and determined how much the thyroid gland could absorb.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland allows to determine abnormalities in the size, structure of the thyroid gland, detect tumors or nodal formations.
- They resort to CT if they need to determine the pathology that caused hypothyroidism.
- Well, probably, the first method of examination is the palpation of the thyroid gland, which is carried out by the doctor at the first visit. It is possible to determine the volume of the gland, the presence in it of formations, the clarity and evenness of its edges.
- A biopsy of the thyroid gland may be required.
Only after a complete examination can we say that the symptoms of thyroid hypothyroidism in women are confirmed, and adequate treatment can be prescribed.
Treatment of hypothyroidism
It is necessary to remember, the earlier the woman will address to the doctor and the exact diagnosis will be put, the more effective will be treatment. It is necessary to tune in to the fact that the process of therapy will be lengthy and complex. Before the appointment of a doctor endocrinologist necessarily advise to undergo an examination with a gynecologist, immunologist, gastroenterologist, in order to exclude concomitant diseases.
At the basis of treatment of diseases of the thyroid gland lies the course of taking hormonal preparations, which contain its ready-made hormones. If therapy is started on time, then it is possible to defeat hypothyroidism, the symptoms in women will gradually begin to disappear.
In emergency cases it is necessary to resort to surgery, during which part of the gland is removed, but after that the patient is prescribed a course of hormones.
A beautiful half of humanity when prescribing hormones always worries about a set of excess weight. Taking hormones thyroxine and levothyroxine, you can not worry about it, as they increase metabolism, so excess fat will not accumulate.
In addition to drug therapy, when there are pronounced hypothyroidism symptoms, and treatment for women is long, proper nutrition plays an important role. The attending physician necessarily speaks about this. With this disease, the body is prone to swelling and an unreasonable weight gain, so you will have to adhere to the following diet:
- Exclude from the diet fatty foods, especially containing preservatives.
- I'll have to give up buns and chocolate.
- Reduce the intake of butter, oily fish.
- Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Include in the diet of chicken, low-fat cottage cheese and cheese.
- Attack on sea kale.
- To prevent excessive edema, the amount of fluid should be reduced to 500-600 ml per day.
In addition to this diet, it is desirable to include the intake of vitamin complexes. The doctor will recommend which drug is best for hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism in women: treatment with folk remedies
The main treatment with hormonal drugs and compliance with the diet can be supplemented with traditional medicine methods. Recipes that folk healers recommend, are also aimed at the normalization of thyroid function.
The advantages of this treatment are that it is suitable for almost all patients, it acts on the body more gently and rarely causes side effects. Consider some recipes, after using which hypothyroidism in women began to reduce their symptoms.
- Prepare a lemon-honey drink. To do this, cut the peel from 1 lemon, put in a saucepan and add 1 tablespoon of honey and flax seeds. Pour a liter of boiling water and boil for about 10 minutes. You can use it throughout the day instead of tea.
- Compose a collection of medicinal herbs, which can include: a shepherd's bag, yarrow, chamomile, mint, spores, birch leaves. All the ingredients take in equal amounts, then 2 tablespoons of the collection pour a glass of boiling water and add a spoonful of dried blueberries, boil a few minutes and drink on the third part of the glass 3 times a day.
- Nettle is valued for its high content of vitamins, so from 2 tablespoons of a dry plant make in 1.5 cups of boiling water a decoction, insist for about an hour - and you can take 50 ml before meals. It can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 2 days.
- The fruits of feijoa are famous for their high content of iodine, so you can prepare a useful treat. Take half a kilo of feijoa and grind it in a meat grinder, and then fall asleep with a kilogram of sugar. You can take every morning for 2 tablespoons, the mixture stored in the refrigerator.
- Grind 300 grams of walnuts and 100 grams of garlic, pour all this with a glass of boiling water and boil until the formation of gruel. Then add half a kilogram of liquid honey and 50 grams of anise grains. To take such a drug is recommended 14 days for 1 tablespoon before eating, and then a break for 2 weeks, then the course can be repeated.
- Prepare buckwheat porridge from 100 grams of cereals and half a liter of water, before the porridge is almost ready, add 50 grams of dry sea kale and 1 tsp. turmeric, salt to taste. You can eat such a mess every day.
- Oak compress. Prepare the powder from the oak bark, take 2 tablespoons and pour a glass of boiling water. Insist 30 minutes, soak the broth with gauze and put on your throat, and top with a scarf. This procedure is preferably done at night for 3 weeks.
That's how you can defeat hypothyroidism in women, reviews about traditional treatment are only positive. Patients note a significant relief of their condition. But do not forget that no one has canceled medical therapy.
Danger of hypothyroidism for women
This disease is dangerous for any organism, and for a woman doubly, especially if the lady is only going to become a mother. The lack of hormones of the thyroid gland leads to a disruption in the synthesis and transport of sex hormones. Thyroid hormones stimulate the synthesis of protein in the liver, which binds estradiol and testosterone.
With hypothyroidism, the amount of this protein decreases, which leads to an increase in the male hormone of testosterone, and it will not take long to wait, it will manifest itself with problems with ovulation, the menstrual cycle will be broken, changes in appearance that are more typical of men, such as excessive facial hair growth, figures for the male type.
It is for these reasons that hypothyroidism poses a danger to women. If you do not seek help from an endocrinologist in time, it will all end in infertility.
It is important to know that a doctor should be examined at the planning stage of pregnancy. If there is hypothyroidism (symptoms) in women, treatment with folk remedies and medications will help bring all the indicators back to normal.
There are cases when the disease is diagnosed already during pregnancy. In this situation, therapy can not be postponed, since the lack of thyroid hormones not only affects the female body negatively, but, more dangerously, it can cause various pathologies in the fetus.
If you do not completely treat hypothyroidism, the symptoms in women persist, which means there is a danger that the baby will be born with a congenital thyroid disease. Such pathology practically does not give in to treatment, and the mum condemns the child on lifelong reception of medicines.
Consequences of hypothyroidism
If the patient ignores the doctor's recommendations and treats the treatment lightly, then there is a high probability of earning various complications. To such it is possible to carry:
- A sharp decline in all metabolic processes in the body.
- There are diseases of the heart muscle, for example, arrhythmia, and can even overtake and heart attack.
- As the thyroid gland grows in size, there are difficulties in breathing and swallowing.
- Decreased mental capacity.
- There may be a hypothyroid coma, and this is very serious.
The state of a coma has its own characteristic manifestations:
- Lowering body temperature below 36 degrees.
- Constant drowsiness, which only grows.
- The speech is confused.
- The oppressed consciousness, down to its complete absence.
- Reduced blood pressure.
- The heart rate decreases.
- Fluids accumulate in the pleural cavity.
In this state, there is a very high risk of death. This expects those who do not take seriously hypothyroidism and do not undergo the appropriate treatment.
To avoid serious problems due to hypothyroidism, it is necessary to visit the polyclinic in a timely manner, undergo annual examinations. This is the only way to prevent diseases of the thyroid gland.
An important role in prevention is the diet. In many areas of our country, water, and therefore food, contain a small amount of iodine, so you must additionally take a multivitamin or include products that contain this element.
If even the slightest signs of the disease are noticed, especially for children and pregnant women, we must postpone all cases and run to the endocrinologist. Only a specialist will prescribe adequate treatment, and you will be able to avoid all the complications and troubles that can cause hypothyroidism in women. The symptoms then quickly leave you, and there will be no complications.