In the human body, the work of all internal organs is controlled by two systems - nervous and endocrine. If the former performs its regulation through reflex acts, then the latter acts more gently with the help of secreted hormones by the endocrine glands. They are carried by the blood throughout the body and regulate the functioning of the internal organs. One of the main glands is the thyroid, which synthesizes many different hormones that affect different systems. With a shortage or with an excess of them all sorts of problems are observed. We will get acquainted with one of them. Consider hypothyroidism - symptoms and treatment in women.
What is hypothyroidism?
The thyroid gland is one of the first places in its importance in the human body. The hormones that it synthesizes regulate the work of virtually all organ systems. When too little is produced, a syndrome such as thyroid hypothyroidism develops in women.
In men, problems with this organ are much less common, but the beautiful half of humanity is very sensitive to any changes in the hormonal background. Hypothyroidism in women may not show symptoms for a long time.
Diagnosis of the disease is hampered by the fact that in the early stages of its development, hypothyroidism resembles ordinary fatigue. In women, this condition can still be attributed to pregnancy or other diseases of internal organs.
Varieties of the disease
If hypothyroidism is diagnosed in women, treatment will depend on the cause and form of the disease. Given the occurrence and development of the disease, hypothyroidism is:
- Primary. It develops if there are problems in the thyroid gland itself.
- The secondary form occurs when a deficiency of the hormone thyrotropin, which is synthesized by the pituitary gland.
- Tertiary hypothyroidism is associated with problems of the synthesis of the hormone thyroliberin by the hypothalamus.
- Peripheral is manifested by a decrease in the sensitivity of cells and tissues to the effects of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
In turn, primary hypothyroidism is divided into:
Congenital is usually associated with the pathology of the development of the thyroid gland during fetal development, so it secretes too little of the hormones, or they may not exist at all. There are cases of a hereditary defect of the enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of hormones, iodine assimilation process is disturbed, and it is simply necessary for the normal operation of the thyroid gland.
Hypothyroidism in women may have different symptoms depending on the nature of the development of the disease. On this basis are distinguished:
- Subclinical hypothyroidism. For a long time, symptoms are blurred, manifestations do not correspond to the course of the disease. Detect most often with a full examination.
- The manifesto is distinguished by a bright manifestation, a sharp increase in signs.
Many causes can be provoked by the development of acquired hypothyroidism, which will be discussed below.
Causes of hypothyroidism
The congenital form of the disease is diagnosed immediately after birth, but, fortunately, it is quite rare. Over 99% of cases are acquired hypothyroidism. The main reasons for its occurrence are as follows:
- Damage to the thyroid parenchyma can lead to hypothyroidism after many years.
- Complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland.
- Therapy with radioactive iodine.
The listed reasons cause, as a rule, irreversible changes that persist through life.
But there are other reasons that can cause hypothyroidism in women, the symptoms may have varying degrees of manifestation:
- Insufficient intake of iodine in the body with food and water.
- The defeat of the thyroid gland is a viral or bacterial infection.
- With the defeat of the pituitary gland.
- If the body is exposed to radiation.
- After taking drugs that inhibit the function of the thyroid gland.
All of these causes cause reversible changes, which, with appropriate treatment, are quite treatable.
Manifestations of the disease in women
In the early stages, problems in the work of the thyroid gland are manifested in almost the same way as in men and children. But there are some peculiarities. Hypothyroidism is often found in women after 50 years, but the problem is that at this time there is a hormonal adjustment in connection with menopause, and health problems are associated with it.
Hypothyroidism begins to manifest itself with the appearance of excess weight. And no diet and exercise do not help him lose. There are frequent mood swings, weakness. Once again, women blame it on hormonal adjustment, so treatment is postponed, and the disease is aggravated.
Further, if treatment is not started, the following manifestations join:
- There are problems with memory.
- Even minor physical exertion causes severe fatigue.
- Begin to fall hair.
- Become brittle nails.
- The skin becomes dry and becomes yellowish.
If a woman has not yet reached the age of 45-50 years, then the signs of hypothyroidism in women can be as follows:
- The menstrual cycle is disturbed, up to termination.
- Infertility may develop in the most serious cases.
- There are interruptions in the work of the heart.
- Heart activity is impaired.
- Sensations of constriction increase in the region of the throat, larynx and trachea.
- Edema appears, which extends to the internal organs, develops myxedema.
With the development of the disease, hypothyroidism in women is becoming more serious, the photo clearly demonstrates this. Myxedema without proper treatment can cause myxedema coma, which is manifested by significant disruptions in the cardiovascular system, respiratory and nervous. If you do not provide timely assistance, the patient dies from swelling of the brain or lungs.
Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
If the first signs of hypothyroidism in women appear, an endocrinologist should be urgently visited. The doctor, after listening to the patient, prescribes a number of examinations, among which of particular importance are:
- A blood test that determines the content of thyroid hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The indicators will be significantly below the norm, which for thyroxin is 2.6-5.7 mmol / l, and for the second - 9.0-22.0 mmol / l. The content of pituitary hormones is also determined in order to determine with accuracy, primary hypothyroidism or secondary.
- A blood test for the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and thyropercidase. If they are significantly elevated, then there are autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
- Recently, scintigraphy is quite popular. A woman is given an inside some amount of labeled iodine, and after 24 hours they scan and determine how much the thyroid gland has been able to absorb.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland allows you to determine variations in size, the structure of the thyroid gland, to detect tumors or nodules.
- They resort to CT if it is necessary to determine the pathology that caused the hypothyroidism.
- Well and, probably, the first method of examination is palpation of the thyroid gland, which is carried out by the doctor at the first visit. It is possible to determine the volume of the gland, the presence of formations in it, the clarity and evenness of its edges.
- May require a biopsy of the thyroid gland.
Only after a full examination can we say that the symptoms of thyroid hypothyroidism in women are confirmed, and adequate treatment can be prescribed.
It must be remembered that the sooner a woman goes to a doctor and an accurate diagnosis is made, the more effective the treatment will be. It is necessary to tune in to the fact that the process of therapy will be long and complicated. Before prescribing treatment, the endocrinologist will definitely advise you to be examined by a gynecologist, an immunologist, a gastroenterologist, in order to rule out concomitant diseases.
The basis of the treatment of diseases of the thyroid gland is the course of hormonal drugs that contain its ready-made hormones. If the therapy is started on time, then hypothyroidism can be overcome, the symptoms in women will gradually begin to disappear.
In emergency cases, you have to resort to surgery, during which part of the gland is removed, but after that the patient is prescribed a course of hormones.
The beautiful half of humanity in the appointment of hormones is always worried about weight gain. Taking the hormones thyroxine and levothyroxine, you can not worry about it, because they increase the metabolism, so excess fat will not accumulate.
In addition to drug therapy, when there are pronounced hypothyroidism symptoms, and treatment in women is long-lasting, proper nutrition plays an important role. The attending physician necessarily speaks about it. With this disease, the body is subject to edema and causeless weight gain, so you have to follow the following diet:
- Exclude fatty foods from the diet, especially those containing preservatives.
- We'll have to give up buns, chocolate.
- Reduce the consumption of butter, fatty fish.
- Eat more fresh vegetables and fruits.
- Include in the diet chicken, low-fat cottage cheese and cheese.
- Lay on the sea kale.
- In order to avoid excessive edema, the amount of fluid should be reduced to 500-600 ml per day.
In addition to this diet, it is desirable to include the intake of vitamin complexes. The doctor will recommend which drug is better to choose for hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism in women: treatment of folk remedies
The main treatment with hormonal drugs and compliance with the diet can be supplemented with traditional medicine methods. Recipes that are recommended by traditional healers are also aimed at normalizing the function of the thyroid gland.
The advantages of this treatment are that it suits almost all patients, acts on the body more gently and rarely causes side effects. Consider some recipes, after the use of which hypothyroidism in women began to reduce their symptoms.
- Prepare a lemon-honey drink. To do this, cut off the peel from 1 lemon, put in a saucepan and add 1 tablespoon of honey and flax seeds. Pour a liter of boiling water and boil for about 10 minutes. Can be consumed throughout the day instead of tea.
- Make a collection of medicinal herbs in which you can include: shepherd's bag, yarrow, chamomile, mint, knotweed, birch leaves. Take all the ingredients in equal quantities, then pour 2 tablespoons of the collection with a glass of boiling water and add a spoonful of dried blueberries, boil for a few minutes and drink a third of glass 3 times a day.
- Nettle is valued for its high content of vitamins, so from 2 tablespoons of a dry plant to make a decoction in 1.5 cups boiling water, to insist about an hour - and you can take 50 ml before a meal. It can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 2 days.
- Feijoa fruits are famous for their high iodine content, so you can make a healthy delicacy. Take a pound of feijoa and grind in a meat grinder, and then fall asleep a kilogram of sugar. You can take every morning 2 tablespoons, store the mixture in the refrigerator.
- Grind 300 grams of walnuts and 100 grams of garlic, pour all this into a glass of boiling water and boil until a slurry forms. After that, add a pound of liquid honey and 50 grams of anise seeds. It is recommended to take such a drug for 14 days, 1 tablespoon before meals, and then a break of 2 weeks, then the course can be repeated.
- Prepare buckwheat porridge from 100 grams of cereals and half a liter of water, before the porridge is almost ready, add 50 grams of dry sea kale and 1 tsp. turmeric, salt to taste. You can eat this porridge at least every day.
- Oak compress. Prepare the powder of oak bark, take 2 tablespoons and pour a glass of boiling water. Insist for 30 minutes, soak gauze with this decoction and put on the throat, and wrap the top with a scarf. This procedure is preferably done overnight for 3 weeks.
This is how it is possible to defeat hypothyroidism in women, and only positive feedback on popular treatment. Patients noted a significant relief of their condition. Only in this case we should not forget that no one has canceled drug therapy.
Danger of hypothyroidism for women
This disease is a danger for any organism, and for a woman doubly, especially if a lady is only going to become a mother. A lack of thyroid hormones leads to a violation of the synthesis and transport of sex hormones. Thyroid hormones stimulate protein synthesis in the liver, which binds estradiol and testosterone.
When hypothyroidism, the amount of this protein decreases, which leads to an increase in the male hormone testosterone, but it will not take long to appear, will manifest problems with ovulation, the menstrual cycle will break, appearance changes that are more typical for men will appear - this is excessive growth of facial hair, transformation figures under the male type.
It is for these reasons that hypothyroidism is dangerous for women. If you do not seek help from an endocrinologist in time, then everything will end in sterility.
It is important to know that a medical examination should be carried out at the planning stage of pregnancy. If hypothyroidism (symptoms) is detected in women, treatment with folk remedies and medicines will help bring all the indicators back to normal.
There are cases when the disease is diagnosed during pregnancy. In this situation, therapy also cannot be postponed, since the lack of thyroid hormones not only adversely affects the female body, but, more dangerous, can cause various pathologies in the fetus.
If you do not completely treat hypothyroidism, the symptoms in women remain, which means there is a danger that the baby will be born with a congenital thyroid disease. This pathology is practically not treatable, and the mother condemns the child for life-long medication.
Consequences of hypothyroidism
If the patient ignores the recommendations of the doctor and treats frivolously, then there is a high probability of making various complications. These include:
- A sharp decline in all metabolic processes in the body.
- There are diseases of the heart muscle, such as arrhythmia, and may even overtake a heart attack.
- As the thyroid gland increases in size, difficulties appear in breathing and swallowing.
- Decreased mental abilities.
- A hypothyroid coma may occur, and this is already very serious.
The state of coma has its characteristic manifestations:
- Lowering body temperature below 36 degrees.
- Constant drowsiness, which only increases.
- Confused speech.
- Depressed consciousness, up to its complete absence.
- Lowering blood pressure.
- Heart rate decreases.
- Fluid accumulates in the pleural cavity.
In this condition, there is a very high risk of death. This is what awaits those who do not take hypothyroidism seriously and do not receive appropriate treatment.
To avoid serious problems due to hypothyroidism, it is necessary to visit the clinic in a timely manner, to undergo annual examinations. Only in this way will it be possible to prevent diseases of the thyroid gland.
An important role in the prevention of diet plays. In many areas of our country, water, and, accordingly, food, contain a small amount of iodine, so you need to additionally take multivitamins or include products containing this element.
If even the slightest signs of the disease are noticed, especially for children and pregnant women, it is necessary to postpone everything and run to an endocrinologist. Only a specialist will prescribe adequate treatment, and you will be able to avoid all the complications and troubles that hypothyroidism can cause in women. The symptoms will then quickly leave you, and there will be no complications.