The gynecological mirror is an essential tool of the obstetrician-gynecologist, necessary for diagnosis. These dilators are used to conduct an external examination of the female genital organs (cervix, vagina).
Gynecological mirrors consist of two flaps in the form of grooves, a lever mechanism, and a spiral-shaped crestal tube (clamp). They are also equipped with a visualization window. In order to open the tool, it is enough to squeeze the handles.
Self-contained wing mirrors are used most widely. This is due to the fact that they allow the doctor’s hands to be left free, and he can not only carry out a primary examination, but also perform some medical procedures (for example, a smear) or even perform an operation.
Folds have a rounded shape. As a rule, modern gynecological mirrors from polystyrene are used. Since they are transparent, good visibility is achieved, which significantly improves the conditions of the inspection. The clamp allows to establish various provisions of the tool. The mirror is durable, comfortable and easy to use, since one hand is enough to work with it. Before packing the instrument is thoroughly sterilized. There should be no cracks, burrs, scratches and other defects on the surface.
The appointment of a gynecological mirror
This device is widely used in modern medicine. It is used to examine the cervix and vagina. At the same time for the implementation of the most thorough inspection fit mirrors that have the shape of spoons.
Spreading the sash in different directions, you can:
- perform a study of the mucous membrane (to assess the color, grain, to identify the presence of scars, tears, see swelling and other deviations from the norm);
- determine the size of the cervix and its shape;
- diagnose “erosion”;
- make a smear and others.
Gynecological mirror: dimensions
In each situation, different types of tools are used. Depending on the age category of women, as well as on how much it is necessary to dilute the walls of the vagina, apply a different gynecological mirror. Its dimensions are:
- XS - designed for children. Diameter is 23 mm. in length, Sash is 70 mm. is most Often used is gynecological mirror for girls 12 years of age who are sexually active. Can be used for inspection of virgins, only when it is necessary. Helps ensure minimal damage to the hymen.
- S - gynecological mirror for births. The diameter is 23 mm. The length of the flaps is 75 mm.
- M - used when there is no need to strongly dilute the walls of the vagina. Diameter - 25 mm. The leaves have a length of 85 mm.
- L - it becomes necessary when you want to maximize dilute the walls of the vagina. The diameter is 30 mm, and the flaps are 90 mm long.
Types of gynecological mirrors
Two of the most important parameter (the capacity of the vagina and size of the pelvis women) to define the shape and size of the mirror that need to do the inspection. Gynecologic speculum can be of several types. Consider them in detail:
- Fluted mirror of Simon, consisting of two parts in the form of scoops with handles. The first of them has the form of a chute, is used to pull the posterior wall of the vagina. The second part is flat, it is pushed to the front wall.
- Mirror-lift Ott. Also has two parts: spoon-shaped and flat. The second is presented in the form of a plate-lift, which is attached with a screw to the handle.
- Mirror for gynecological Cusco. You do not need a lift. In the result of the doctor's hands free. He can easily make a stroke or to make any other manipulation. After the sash are introduced into the vagina, they are fixed in the desired position thanks to a special spacer.
- Flat mirror of Doyen. It is used when the vagina needs to be opened wide for inspection. For example, when performing a vaginal cesarean or when carrying out a vaginal removal of the uterus.
Most often, a routine examination uses a gynecological specimen according to Cuzco. It is most convenient, because it allows you to completely free up the hands of the doctor for the necessary manipulations. If you need to do a thorough examination of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix, use a colposcope. This special optical device allows you to determine most accurately all the existing problems in this area.
Disposable gynecological mirror
Currently, in any pharmacy you can buy a disposable sterile kit. Its structure necessarily includes a disposable gynecological mirror. This tool is the most commonly used when examined by obstetricians. The material used in its manufacture is transparent polystyrene, thanks to which the gynecologist can examine the vaginal walls well.
Advantages of disposable mirrors
- transparency, which provides a good overview;
- sterility, that is, you can be sure that the instrument has not been used before and no infection will be introduced into the vagina;
- simplicity and ease of use, since one hand is enough for working with a mirror;
- the view is doubled due to the almost horizontal opening of the area;
- disclosure is effortless;
- possibility of reliable fixation in six positions;
- long shelf life - 5 years.
Reusable gynecological mirror
Currently, the use of such tools fades into the background. The reusable gynecological mirror is made of metal. It is a reliable tool that can be used for many years. After each use it must be sterilized. However, women prefer to buy disposable mirrors, as with their use the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection is minimized.
Gynecological mirror for children
In some cases, there is a need for a deep examination by a doctor of the genitals of girls and girls. For this purpose, special gynecological mirrors for children are used. Girls aged 12 and older are viewed with tools that have the same width of the working surface. There are also flat children's lifts. For girls under 12 years of age, use mirrors that are closer to the grip taper.
If this is not enough, then use grooved devices with removable illuminators. These mirrors are shaped like a gutter. The light bulb is covered with a special cap, so as not to injure the vagina.
Proper use of gynecological speculum
Examination must be carried out by a qualified doctor. A woman lies in a gynecological chair. The doctor puts on sterile gloves. Primary inspection is carried out without a mirror. Next, the doctor must treat the genitals antiseptic. The mirror should be kept closed right hand. The labia should be moved apart and the mirror inserted parallel to them, after which it should be rotated 90 degrees. Next, the doctor pushes the sash to the desired position and fixes it with the help of a lock. The pain in this procedure occurs rarely, as a rule, in women who have not given birth, either if the wrong size of the mirror was chosen, or if the doctor is inexperienced and performed the wrong manipulation. At the end of the inspection, the lock is loosened and the walls of the vagina are further examined.
Thus, gynecological mirrors are the instrument most commonly used by obstetricians. It is practically impossible to do without them, they greatly simplify the examination and even help to carry out simple external operations in the vagina. Special mirrors are made even for children. Currently, the use of reusable tools is relegated to the background. Women prefer disposable gynecological mirrors, as their use helps prevent infection in the genital tract.