Hybrid (from the Latin.hibrida ) - the creation of a new individual by crossing living organisms of different breeds, species, varieties. The process of hybridization is applied mainly to living beings (animals, plants).
The article will focus on the creation of such organisms in the animal kingdom. These are the most complex experiments. Also, the reader will be able to see hybrids of animals, photos of which are placed in sections.
The first attempts of creating hybrids was carried out in the XVII century by a German scientist in the field of botany by Camerarius. And in 1717 the English gardener Thomas Francillon the scientific community presents a successful result of hybridization – new species of carnations.
The creation of hybrid plants has become widespread among biologists all over the world: crossing different seeds, breeding new varieties, and by selection, cultures were selected that, depending on necessity, had frost resistance, yielded a large crop, had immunity to parasite damage, exceeded in the amount of their "parents", etc.
In the animal kingdom, everything was much more complicated. In the world of wildlife, it is extremely rare to find animal hybrids. Therefore, the crossing of representatives of different species occurred artificially - in the laboratory or in reserves.
The very first hybrid with a thousand-year history is, of course, a mule - a mixture of donkey and horse.
From the middle of the XIX century, with the advent of reserves and zoos (in the form in which we are accustomed to see them in modern times), we began to cross bears - brown and white, as well as a zebra with a horse.
Since the middle of the twentieth century, scientists around the world have been experimenting on crossing different species of animals. All of them pursue different goals: someone displays hybrids to improve productivity, someone - for exotics, and someone - for obtaining effective medications.
Hybrids of animals: what are they?
Worldwide, there are more than 80 interspecific hybrids, but focus on the brightest and most famous representatives.
Peasli (acupuncture) is a cross between a polar bear and a grizzly bear. The first mention of an unusual animal dates back to 1864. Then in the northwestern part of North America, near Lake Rendezvous, a bear with an unusually dull white color and a golden brown muzzle was shot.
Ten years later, the German zoo (Halle) received the first offspring of white and brown bears. Kids were born white, but over time the color changed to bluish-brown or golden brown. Peasli showed good results in terms of reproduction: hybrid animals successfully gave offspring. Crossing occurred between the acupuncture, and with representatives of the clean line.
Often, interspecific animal hybrids are not reproductive, but pizza is an exception, since both bears can be classified as a single species according to their biological characteristics, but, based on a number of morphological features, bears were singled out by scientists in separate species.
Before 2006, there was a view that the hybrid animals are not found in the natural environment. This myth was dispelled on 16 April 2006 an American hunter Jim Martell, who Banks island (canadian Arctic) shot peaselee that was the indisputable proof of the emergence of hybrids in the wild.
Ligris and Tigrolev
The first is a hybrid of a tigress and a lion, and the second is the offspring of a lioness and a tiger. These hybrids of animals are born exclusively in artificial conditions, the reason is banal - different habitats (Africa and Eurasia) do not allow them to meet, it is possible only in menageries.
Externally, the ligers are like a cave lion, which died out during the Pleistocene period. To date, this hybrid is considered the largest among the felines. This phenomenon is explained by growth genes: they are not as active in tigers as in lions. For the same reason, the tiger is smaller than the tiger.
The amusement park "Jungle Island" (Miami, USA) contains a male liger named Hercules weighing 418 kg. For comparison: the average weight of the Amur tiger varies from 260 to 340 kg, and the African lion - from 170 to 240 kg. So, Hercules for one approach absorbs up to 45 kg of food, and the speed of 80 km / h develops in 10 seconds.
The remarkable feature of the ligers is that these cats love to splash in the water. Another feature: ligers are one of the few hybrids that are capable of reproducing offspring. So, at the Novosibirsk Zoo on August 16, 2012, Samson and Liza Zita became parents, giving the life of the lily Chiara.
To date, there are just over 20 ligers in the world.
Bester - a hybrid of two representatives of the family of sturgeon - female beluga and male sterlet. The appearance of the bester is due to the Russian scientist-biologist - Professor NI Nikolyukin. Since 1948, he has taken up the problem of hybridization of sturgeon. In 1952, the wife of Nikolai Ivanovich, who together with her husband worked on the creation of fish hybrids, tried to artificially obtain offspring of sterlet and beluga. Nekolyukins did not expect that this unscheduled experiment would start a new direction in fish farming.
During the experiments the professor crossed different kinds of sturgeon, but the queue did not reach the beluga and sterlet. Perhaps he considered the experiment to be initially a failure, since these sturgeons are different in size and weight (the beluga - up to a ton, and the sterlet - not more than 15 kg), live and spawn in different places, and their hybrids can not give offspring. But everything happened exactly the opposite.
Bester took a rapid growth from the beluga, and from sterlet - rapid sexual maturation, which is an important factor for industrial fish. Also, the hybrid got incredibly tender meat and delicious caviar.
Now on the territory of Russia besterov bred on an industrial scale.
This is a hybrid of Bactrian male and female llama. The first kama was published in 1998 in the reproduction center of animals in Dubai. The individual was created artificially, the main purpose of this crossing was to obtain an animal with the endurance of a camel and the quality of a lama's wool. The experiment was a success. Kama has turned out to weigh up to 60 kg, with a wool no less than 6 cm in length, with the ability to carry loads up to 30 kg. The lack of camelamas is the inability to reproduce. Of course, in nature this option would not be possible, since lamas live in South America, and the Bactrians live in Asia and Africa, and in size, the former are much inferior to the second. Despite these data, it turned out that the camel and lama have the same number of chromosomes.
To date, the United Arab Emirates received six individuals Kam.
Kosatkodelfin (wolfin, cytofin)
Kosatkodelfin - a killer whale (small black) and bottlenose dolphins. The first wolf appeared in the water park in Tokyo, but died at the age of six. The second hybrid of the Kosatkodel'fin appeared in Hawaii in the SeaLifePark marine park in 1986. A female wolfin named Kekaimalu began breeding at the age of five, which is quite early for killer whales and dolphins. The first experience of motherhood was somewhat unsuccessful: the mother refused to feed the baby, so she was fed artificially, which allowed to grow an absolutely manual individual, but her life was short and ended at the age of 9 years. The happiness of motherhood of Kekaimalu was tested three times, but the most successful was the last one: in 2004 a female Kavili Kai was born from a male bottlenose dolphin. The baby was very playful, and a month after birth, she reached the size of her father.
An interesting fact discovered by scientists: wolfina 66 teeth, bottlenose dolphins – 88, and the whale – 44.
Now in the world there are two individuals of Kosatkodelfin, which are kept in Hawaii. Sometimes there is information that the wolves have seen at will, but scientists have not yet been able to confirm this data.
Let's see what are the most common hybrids of animals. The examples are quite interesting. These are the following hybrids:
- a domestic horse and a zebra - a zebroid;
- donkey and zebra - zebrul;
- bison and bison - bison;
- sable and marten - kiddas;
- cichlids - the parrot is red;
- females of the African lion and leopard - levopard;
- leopard and lioness - leopon;
- capercaillie and black grouse - meadow;
- dromedary and bactrian - nar;
- lioness and tiger - tigon;
- hare and hare - cuff;
- cows and yaks - haynak (dzo);
- ferret and mink - Honorik;
- leopard and jaguar - yagopard.
But such in the course of many experiments were obtained hybrids of farm animals:
- horses and donkey mules;
- donkey and stallion - a hound;
- ram and goat;
- diamond and gold pheasants - hybrid pheasant;
- cows of domestic and American bison - bifalo;
- the hybrid produced by crossing drakes Beijing musk duck white, Rouen, orpington, white Allier – Mullard
- a domestic pig with a wild boar - a pig from the Iron Age.
About hybrid animals can be very long, given their number and diversity. But there are other options, for example, hybrids of animals and plants?
To date, there is the only known hybrid - the marine snail (Elysia chlorotica), which lives on the coast of North America from the Atlantic Ocean. These animals feed on solar energy: eating plants, they photosynthesize. The cochlea was dubbed a gelatinous plant of green color. This hybrid receives chloroplasts, which are then stored in intestinal cells. Curious fact: a sea snail with a lifespan of not more than one year can only eat the first two weeks from the moment of birth, after which the consumption of food becomes a non-priority.
Hybrids of plants and animals have become habitual, but how has the public reacted to the hybrid of man and animal? And do such people exist?
There are many rumors about the existence of such hybrids, but, unfortunately, there are very few facts. However, studying the mythology of different peoples, scientists point to the presence in virtually all epics of beast. Scientists from Australia and the United States studied more than 5000 rock paintings, texts. Most often there are descriptions of people whose bodies (usually the lower part) consist of the body of a horse, a goat, a sheep, a dog. The names of such animals are well known to us from mythology. These are centaurs, minotaurs, satyrs and others.
The existence of such "people", the scientists explained that in ancient times, the bestiality was a common occurrence, especially in the army, for it was always kept flocks of sheep and goats. The animals were for the military not only of potential food but also the objects of sexual needs. Many scientists of the middle Ages there are mentions about the birth of a female child from the animals and Vice versa. These facts remain a big question, because from a biological point of view, it is impossible due to the different set of chromosomes.
Recently, the public are discovering new, ambiguous facts. One of these facts is an experiment to fertilize a woman with sperm of chimpanzees in fascist Germany and the USSR. According to some reports, the Soviet Union after a series of attempts received a positive result. The further fate of the experiment has not yet been revealed.
A human and animal hybrid for modern society is nonsense, but information about similar experiments continues to appear in the media. Is it true or fiction? We will judge in 10-20 years. Time will show how far science will go, but for now we will absorb hybrid fruit-vegetables, enjoy the beauty of hybrid plants and animals and hope that humanity will not return to the Stone Age.