The last decade of the eighteenth century was marked by an event that not only changed the existing order in a particular European country, but also influenced the whole course of world history. The French revolution of 1789-1799 was a source of inspiration for the preachers of the class struggle of the next few generations. Its dramatic events brought out of the shadows of heroes and anti-heroes unmasked, destroying the familiar attitude of millions of inhabitants of monarchical States. The basic premises and the very French revolution-1789 are briefly described next.
That led to the coup?
Causes of the French revolution of 1789-1799 repeatedly copied from one history book to another, and are reduced to the argument about the overcrowding of the bowl of patience of the large part of the population of France, which under conditions of heavy daily labour and extreme poverty, was forced to provide a luxurious existence of the privileged classes.
Reasons for revolution in France in the late 18th century:
- the huge foreign debt of the country
- unlimited power of the monarch;
- bureaucracy of officials and lawlessness of high-ranking officials;
- heavy tax burden
- harsh exploitation of peasants
- the inordinate demands of the ruling elite.
Read more about the causes of the revolution
He headed the French monarchy in the late eighteenth century, Louis XVI of the Bourbon dynasty. His power is crowned greatness were boundless. It was believed that it was God's way of anointing during the coronation. In deciding the monarch relied on the support of the smallest, but the most wealthy and high-ranking people in the country — the nobility and the clergy. External debts of the state by this time grown to monstrous proportions, and became unbearable burden not only for mercilessly exploited the peasants but of the bourgeoisie, industrial and commercial activities which were subject to exorbitant taxes.
The main causes of the French revolution of 1789 is a discontent and a gradual impoverishment of the bourgeoisie, until recently Mirimskaya absolutism, which patronized the development of industrial production in the interests of national welfare. However, to satisfy the upper classes and the big bourgeoisie became difficult. Was is necessary to reform the archaic system of government and economy, choking bureaucracy and corruption of government officials. However, the enlightened part of the French society was infected with the ideas of writers-philosophers of the time — Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Montesquieu insisted on the fact that the absolute monarchy infringes on the rights of the General population of the country.
Also in the causes of the French revolution of 1789-1799, you can record preceding the disaster worsened the already harsh living conditions of farmers and reduce the income of small industrial enterprises.
The first stage of the French revolution of 1789-1799
Let us examine in detail all the stages of the French revolution of 1789-1799.
The first stage began on January 24, 1789, with convening of the States General at the behest of the French monarch. It was out of the ordinary since the last time a meeting of the Supreme estate-representative body of France took place at the beginning of the XVI century. However, the situation when I had to dismiss the government and to urgently elect a new Director-General of Finance in the person of Jacques Necker, was extraordinary and demanded decisive action. Representatives of the upper class set the goal to find funds to replenish the Treasury of the state, while the whole country was expecting total reform. Began differences between the classes, resulting in the formation of the National Assembly on 17 June 1789. In it was composed of delegates from the third estate, and two dozen of them joined the deputies from the clergy.
The formation of the Constituent national Assembly
Soon after the meeting, the king took a unilateral decision to cancel all adopted decisions on it, and the next meeting, the deputies have been placed in the social class. A few days later, 47 more deputies joined the majority, and Louis XVI was forced to accept a compromise step, ordered the remaining representatives to join the meeting. Later, on 9 July 1789, abolished the States-General were transformed into a Constituent national Assembly.
The position of the newly formed representative body was extremely fragile because of the unwillingness of the Royal court to accept defeat. The news that the Royal troops put on alert for the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, stirred up a wave of popular discontent that resulted in the dramatic events that decided the fate of the French revolution of 1789-1799. Necker was dismissed, and it seemed that the brief life of the Constituent Assembly was coming to an end.
The Storming Of The Bastille
In response to the events in the Parliament in Paris the uprising that began on 12 July, which reached its apogee the next day and marked by the storming of the Bastille occurred on 14 July 1789. The capture of this fortress, the former in the minds of people a symbol of absolutism and despotic power of the state, forever entered the history of France as the first victory of the insurgent people, forced the king to recognize that the start of the French revolution of 1789.
Declaration of Human Rights
Riots and unrest spread throughout the country. Large-scale demonstrations of the peasants sealed the victory of the French revolution. In August of the same year, the Constituent Assembly approved the Declaration of the rights of man and citizen — a landmark document that laid the Foundation for the construction of democracy throughout the world. However, the fruits of the revolution had a chance to taste the not all representatives of the lower class. The meeting was canceled only indirect taxes but maintained the direct, and the passage of time, when the fog of romantic illusions dissipated, many townspeople and peasants realized that the big bourgeoisie has removed them from government decision-making, securing financial well-being and legal protection.
Trekking to Versailles. Reforms
The food crisis that erupted in Paris in early October 1789, sparked a new wave of discontent that culminated in the March on Versailles. Under the pressure of the crowd, rushed into the Palace, the king agreed to sanction the Declaration and other decrees promulgated in August 1789.
The government has committed itself to establishing a constitutional monarchy. This meant that the king exercised rule in the framework of existing legislation. Changes in the structure of the government, deprived of the Royal councils and the state secretaries. Administrative divisions of France are much simplified, and is a multistage complex structure appeared 83 is equal to the area of the Department.
Reforms touched the judicial system, which lost its sales positions and acquired a new structure.
The clergy, a part of which did not recognize the new civil status of France, was at the mercy of the split.
The next stage
The great French revolution of 1789 was only the beginning in the chain of events, including the attempted escape of Louis XVI and the subsequent fall of the monarchy, the military conflicts with the leading European powers, does not recognize the new state structure of France and the ensuing proclamation of the French Republic. In December 1792, the trial of the king, which found him guilty. Louis XVI was beheaded on 21 January 1793.
Thus began the second phase of the French revolution of 1789-1799, which was marked by the struggle between the moderate party of the Girondins, seeking to stop further development of the revolution and more radical Jacobins, insisted on the extension of its actions.
The final stage
The worsening economic situation in the country following the political crisis and military action has exacerbated the class struggle. Flared peasant uprising that led to the unauthorized partition of communal lands. Girondins colluded with the counterrevolutionary forces, were expelled from the Convention — the highest legislative body of the First French Republic, and to power single-handedly came the Jacobins.
In subsequent years of the Jacobin dictatorship resulted in the uprising of the National guard, which ended in the transfer of power to the Directory at the end of 1795. Further actions were aimed at the suppression of pockets of extremist resistance. Thus ended the decade of the French revolution 1789 – the period of socio-economic shocks, a point which raised a coup d'état occurred on 9 November 1799.