Why is it so difficult for us to understand English speech, even if we know all the words? Because if you look closely, almost all sounds in English differ from Russian. Yes, they are similar \u0026 ndash; but only until you look at them in more detail. They are pronounced differently, they sound different and merge into words they are also different.

Sounds in English

It may seem that the phonetics of the English language has many points of contact and that these sounds are interchangeable, however, when hearing a speech, we can not separate individual words and distinguish them by their pronunciation, but different in meaning. In fact, the phonetics of English has only three vowel sounds - [e] - (e), [ɔ] - (o), [u] - (y) and five consonants - [k] - (k), [g] - (d), [m] - (m), [p] - (n), [b] - (b), which can be called analogous to the Russian. Five more diphthongs can be added to them: [ei] - (hey), [ai] - (ay), [au] - (ay), [ɔi] - (oy), [ou] - (oy) (among which the combination of [ou] in the Russian language itself does not occur). In this case, the differences still exist \u0026 ndash; \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; in diphthongs are not pronounced to the end, the consonants are more torn from the vowels, which, in turn, are more hollow and transient in sound. In total, the theoretical phonetics of the English language includes 12 vowel sounds, 8 diphthongs and 24 consonants.

Phonetics of English

Pronunciation of vowels

One-part vowel sounds:

[i:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; and \u0026 lt; - / meal /;

[i] \u0026 ndash; short and hollow \u0026 gt; and \u0026 lt; - / if /;

[e] \u0026 ndash; analogous to the sound \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt; - / then /;

[æ] \u0026 ndash; \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt; tending to \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt ;, but not transposing thereto, more hollow than \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt; - / mad /;

[a:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt;, displaced to the posterior part of the oral cavity - / start /;

[ɔ] \u0026 ndash; short, fairly hollow \u0026 gt; about \u0026 lt; - / box /;

[ɔ:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; about \u0026 lt; - / all /;

[u] \u0026 ndash; short \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt;, pronounced with slightly rounded lips - / took /;

[u:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; at which the lips do not protrude too far - / soon /;

[ʌ] \u0026 ndash; short, reminiscent of a tending to \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; sound \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; - / done /;

[ə] \u0026 ndash; barely distinguishable, unaccounted sound, close to [ʌ], always unstressed - / taker /;

[ə:] \u0026 ndash; stretched sound reminiscent of aspiring to \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; vowel \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; - / pearl /;

Just like in Russian, phonetics of English contains two-part vowel sounds (diphthongs):

[ei] \u0026 ndash; combination \u0026 gt; ei \u0026 lt ;, with incomplete \u0026 gt; d \u0026 lt; - / sake /;

[ou] \u0026 ndash; merged sounds \u0026 gt; oy \u0026 lt ;, where \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; more prolonged, and \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; fuzzy - / show /;

[ai] \u0026 ndash; composite sound \u0026 gt; ad \u0026 lt ;, in which \u0026 gt; d \u0026 lt; not fully expressed - / fine /;

[au] \u0026 ndash; transient sound \u0026 gt; ay \u0026 lt ;, pronounced with a more prolonged \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; rising at the very end to \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; - / found /;

[ɔi] \u0026 ndash; combination \u0026 gt; oh \u0026 lt ;, with more obvious \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; and indistinguishable \u0026 gt; d \u0026 lt; - / boy /;

[iə] \u0026 ndash; beginning with a hollow \u0026 gt; and \u0026 lt; sound \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; \u0026 lt ;, which translates into a slightly mean between \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt; and \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; - / here /;

[ɛə] \u0026 ndash; hollow sound \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt ;, moving closer to the end in \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt ;, composing \u0026 gt; ea \u0026 lt; - / where /;

[uə] \u0026 ndash; which transforms from slightly rounded lips to \u0026 lt ;, transforming into \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt ;, close to \u0026 gt; e, forming a sound \u0026 gt; ea \u0026 lt; - / poor /;

Pronunciation of consonants

In some word combinations, consonants may sound differently. But in all cases without exception they are pronounced solid. The phonetics of the English language does not contain softened consonants.

[f] \u0026 ndash; sound \u0026 gt; \u003c\u0026 lt ;, which, unlike Russian pronunciation, is produced by placing the lower lip over the upper teeth (at the inner edge), and not before (on the outside) - / fall /;

[d] \u0026 ndash; is similar to sound \u0026 gt; d \u0026 lt ;, but is produced not by part of the area of ​​the language, but by its end - / drum /;

[v] \u0026 ndash; resembles \u0026 gt; in \u0026 lt ;, but just as with the sound \u0026 gt; φ \u0026 lt ;, the lower lip goes under the upper teeth, and not exposed in front - / revolve /;

[k] \u0026 ndash; is analogous to the sound \u0026 gt; to \u0026 lt; - / kettle /;

[θ] \u0026 ndash; is reproduced from the position between the sound \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt; and the sound \u0026 gt; with \u0026 lt; when the tongue slides from the sky to the teeth and enters the gap between the upper and lower rows - / third /;

[g] \u0026 ndash; analogue of sound \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; - / game /;

[\u0026 eth; ] \u0026 ndash; the principle of reproduction is the same as that of sound [θ], i.e. tongue, sinking from the upper sky, falls between two rows of teeth, while simultaneously uttering, as it were, \u0026 gt; m \u0026 lt; and \u0026 gt; with \u0026 lt ;, but unlike the deaf [θ], sounding occurs here, so that it does not fall more from\u003e gt \u0026 lt; to \u0026 gt; with \u0026 lt ;, and from \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt; to \u0026 gt; s \u0026 lt; - / this /;

[tʃ] \u0026 ndash; sound corresponding to the sound \u0026 gt; h \u0026 lt ;, however, pronounced not by the language platform, but by the ending - / child /;

[s] \u0026 ndash; Consonant with \u0026 lt ;, but if \u0026 gt; c \u0026 lt; Reproduced when the guttered area of ​​the tongue is located near the alveoli of the upper sky, then [s] \u0026 ndash; the end of the language at the same point - / step /;

[dʒ] \u0026 ndash; close to the combination of sounds \u0026 gt; j \u0026 lt ;, but pronounced with the tip of the tongue at the upper alveoli, and not by jumping to the alveoli of the tongue pad - / joy /;

[z] \u0026 ndash; by the reproduction method, akin \u0026 gt; with \u0026 lt; at the end of the tongue attached to the protuberances of the palate above the upper teeth, but brought to a sonorous state approximating to \u0026 gt; s \u0026 lt; - / zone /;

[m] \u0026 ndash; analogue \u0026 gt; m \u0026 lt; - / mild /;

[ʃ] \u0026 ndash; reminding \u0026 gt; w \u0026 lt; sound, which is carried out by the abutment of the tip of the tongue to the alveoli in the upper sky - / shop /;

[n] \u0026 ndash; is close to \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; \u0026 lt; only \u0026 gt; is extracted by the language platform, and [n] - by the end - / november /;

[ʒ] \u0026 ndash; the sound extracted by the end of the language, similar to \u0026 gt; x \u0026 lt; - / measure /;

[ŋ] \u0026 ndash; remotely resembles \u0026 gt; \u0026 lt; the resulting sound and position of the mouth, but [ŋ] \u0026 ndash; more fuzzy, formed by closing the base of the tongue and the upper sky - / morning /;

[h] \u0026 ndash; close by sound to \u0026 gt; x \u0026 lt;, is produced by exhaling and more unhindered passage of air - / hot /;

[l] \u0026 ndash; sounds almost like \u0026 gt; l \u0026 lt ;, but the end of the language is used instead of the site - / laught /;

[p] \u0026 ndash; is similar to \u0026 gt; n \u0026 lt; - / pork /;

[r] \u0026 ndash; as \u0026 gt; p \u0026 lt; without roar, is composed by the base of the tongue and the upper sky - / role /;

[b] \u0026 ndash; analogue \u0026 gt; b \u0026 lt; - / bird /;

[j] \u0026 ndash; sounds almost like \u0026 gt; d \u0026 lt ;, but hollow and harder - / yellow /;

[t] \u0026 ndash; consonant \u0026 gt; m \u0026 lt; is pronounced with the end of the tongue, suitable for the alveoli on the upper jaw - / tail /;

[w] \u0026 ndash; as the sound \u0026 gt; in \u0026 lt ;, tending to \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt ;, only the lips do not touch the ends of the teeth, as with the proper \u0026 gt; in \u0026 lt ;, i.e. lips are rounded and slightly stretched - / wolf /.