Why is it so difficult for us to understand English, even if we know all the words? Because if you look closely, almost all sounds in English are different from Russian. Yes, they look like \u0026 ndash; but just do not look at them in more detail. They are pronounced differently, they sound differently and merge into words they are also different.

Sounds in English

It may seem that the phonetics of the English language has many points of contact and that these sounds are interchangeable, however, when listening to speech, we cannot isolate individual words and distinguish words that are similar in pronunciation, but different in meaning. In fact, the phonetics of the English language has only three vowels - [e] - (e), [ɔ] - (o), [u] - (y) and five consonants - [k] - (k), [g] - (d), [m] - (m), [p] - (p), [b] - (b), which can be called similar to Russian. Five more diphthongs can be added to them: [ei] - (hey), [ai] - (ay), [au] - (ay), [ɔi] - (oi), [ou] - (oy) (among which the combination [ou] does not occur in the Russian language itself). However, there are still differences \u0026 ndash; \u0026 gt; st \u0026 lt; in diphthongs is not pronounced until the end, the consonants are more divorced from the vowels, which, in turn, sound hollow and shifting. Total theoretical phonetics of English has 12 vowels, 8 diphthongs and 24 consonants.

Phonetics of English

Vowel Pronunciation

Mono-vowel sounds:

[i:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; and \u0026 lt; - / meal /;

[i] \u0026 ndash; short and hollow \u0026 gt; and \u0026 lt; - / if /;

[e] \u0026 ndash; similar to the sound \u0026 gt; u \u0026 lt; - / then /;

[æ] \u0026 ndash; \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt ;, tending to \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; but not turning into it, more hollow than \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt; - / mad /;

[a:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; shifted to the back of the mouth - / start /;

[ɔ] \u0026 ndash; short, fairly hollow \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; - / box /;

[ɔ:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; - / all /;

[u] \u0026 ndash; short \u0026 gt; u \u0026 lt; pronounced with slightly rounded lips - / took /;

[u:] \u0026 ndash; stretched \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; in which the lips do not protrude too far - / soon /;

[ʌ] \u0026 ndash; short, resembling one tending to \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; sound \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; - / done /;

[ə] \u0026 ndash; subtle, non-accented sound, close to [ʌ], always unstressed - / taker /;

[ə:] \u0026 ndash; An outstretched sound, reminiscent of tending to \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; vowel \u0026 gt; ё \u0026 lt; - / pearl /;

As in Russian, the phonetics of the English language contains two-part vowels (diphthongs):

[ei] \u0026 ndash; a combination of \u0026 gt; hey \u0026 lt ;, with a non-expressed \u0026 gt; th \u0026 lt; - / sake /;

[ou] \u0026 ndash; merged sounds \u0026 gt; oh \u0026 lt ;, where \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; longer and \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; fuzzy - / show /;

[ai] \u0026 ndash; composite sound \u0026 gt; ay \u0026 lt; in which \u0026 gt; th \u0026 lt; not fully pronounced - / fine /;

[au] \u0026 ndash; rolling sound \u0026 gt; ay \u0026 lt; pronounced with a longest \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; rising at the very end to \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; - / found /;

[ɔi] \u0026 ndash; a combination of \u0026 gt; oh \u0026 lt ;, with the more obvious \u0026 gt; o \u0026 lt; and little distinguishable \u0026 gt; th \u0026 lt; - / boy /;

[iə] \u0026 ndash; starting with a hollow \u0026 gt; and \u0026 lt; the sound \u0026 gt; ie \u0026 lt; which turns into a midpoint between \u0026 gt; u \u0026 lt; and \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt; - / here /;

[ɛə] \u0026 ndash; a hollow sound \u0026 gt; e \u0026 lt; moving closer to the end in \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt;, making up \u0026 gt; ea \u0026 lt; - / where /;

[uə] \u0026 ndash; The transition from slightly rounded lips \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; turns into \u0026 gt; a \u0026 lt ;, close to \u0026 gt; e, forming the sound \u0026 gt; ea \u0026 lt; - / poor /;

Pronunciation of consonants

In some phrases, consonants may sound differently. But in all cases, without exception, they are pronounced firm. The phonetics of the English language does not contain softened consonants.

[f] \u0026 ndash; the sound \u0026 gt; ф \u0026 lt ;, which, unlike the Russian pronunciation, is made by setting the lower lip by the upper teeth (along the inner edge), and not before (along the outer) - / fall /;

[d] \u0026 ndash; similar to the sound of \u0026 gt; d \u0026 lt; but produced not part of the area of ​​the tongue, but its very end is / drum /;

[v] \u0026 ndash; resembles \u0026 gt; in \u0026 lt; but, just like when sounding \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt ;,, the lower lip goes under the upper teeth and is not placed in front - / revolve /;

[k] \u0026 ndash; similar to the sound of \u0026 gt; k \u0026 lt; - / kettle /;

[θ] \u0026 ndash; reproduced from the position between the sound \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt; and with a sound \u0026 gt; s \u0026 lt; when the tongue slides from the sky onto the teeth and into the gap between the upper and lower rows - / third /;

[g] \u0026 ndash; analog sound \u0026 gt; g \u0026 lt; - / game /;

[\u0026 eth; ] \u0026 ndash; The principle of reproduction is the same as that of sound [θ], i.e. the tongue, falling down from the upper palate, falls between two rows of teeth, simultaneously pronouncing, as it were, a \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt; and \u0026 gt; with \u0026 lt ;, but, in contrast to the deaf [θ], sub-sounding takes place here, so that it descends rather not from \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt; to \u0026 gt; s \u0026 lt ;, and from \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt; k \u0026 gt; h \u0026 lt; - / this /;

[tʃ] \u0026 ndash; a sound consistent with the sound of \u0026 gt; h \u0026 lt; however, it is not pronounced by the platform of the language, but by the ending - / child /;

[s] \u0026 ndash; Consonant with \u0026 gt; c \u0026 lt; but if \u0026 gt; c \u0026 lt; is reproduced when the tongue area located at the alveoli of the upper palate is folded down, then [s] \u0026 ndash; the end of the language located at the same point - / step /;

[dʒ] \u0026 ndash; close combinations of sounds \u0026 gt; j \u0026 lt; however, pronounced with the tip of the tongue at the upper-alveoli, and not by joining the alveoli of the language platform - / joy /;

[z] \u0026 ndash; by the method of reproduction, akin to \u0026 gt; c \u0026 lt; i.e. when the end of the tongue is attached to the protrusions of the sky above the upper teeth, but brought to a sonorous state, close to \u0026 gt; h \u0026 lt; - / zone /;

[m] \u0026 ndash; analogue \u0026 gt; m \u0026 lt; - / mild /;

[ʃ] \u0026 ndash; resembling \u0026 gt; w \u0026 lt; the sound that is accomplished by adjoining the tip of the tongue to the alveoli in the upper sky - / shop /;

[n] \u0026 ndash; is close to \u0026 gt; n \u0026 lt ;, only \u0026 gt; n \u0026 lt; retrieved by the tongue pad, and [n] - by the end - / november /;

[ʒ] \u0026 ndash; extracted by the end of the language sound similar to \u0026 gt; w \u0026 lt; - / measure /;

[ŋ] \u0026 ndash; vaguely reminiscent of \u0026 gt; n \u0026 lt; the resulting sound and mouth position, but [ŋ] \u0026 ndash; more fuzzy, formed by the closure of the base of the tongue and the upper sky - / morning /;

[h] \u0026 ndash; close in sound to \u0026 gt; x \u0026 lt ;, produced by exhalation and more unhindered passage of air - / hot /;

[l] \u0026 ndash; sounds almost like \u0026 gt; l \u0026 lt; however, instead of the pad, the end of the language is involved - / laught /;

[p] \u0026 ndash; similar to \u0026 gt; p \u0026 lt; - / pork /;

[r] \u0026 ndash; as \u0026 gt; p \u0026 lt; without roar, is made up by the basis of the language and the upper sky - / role /;

[b] \u0026 ndash; analogue of \u0026 gt; b \u0026 lt; - / bird /;

[j] \u0026 ndash; almost sounds like \u0026 gt; th \u0026 lt; but more hollow and hard - / yellow /;

[t] \u0026 ndash; Consonant with \u0026 gt; t \u0026 lt ;, pronounced using the end of the tongue that matches the alveoli in the sky of the upper jaw - / tail /;

[w] \u0026 ndash; as sound \u0026 gt; in \u0026 lt; tending to \u0026 gt; y \u0026 lt; only the lips do not touch the ends of the teeth, as with actually \u0026 gt; in \u0026 lt; i.e. lips rounded and slightly stretched - / wolf /.