Late blight is one of the most common diseases of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. Just a few days a pathogenic fungus Phytophthora infestans is able to destroy most of the harvest. The diseased plants are covered by dark spots on the underside of the leaves appear white bloom, and the fruit begins to rot right on the plant. How to prevent the development of such diseases as late blight of tomatoes? Treatment of this infection may occur not only with the use of hazardous and often expensive chemicals, but also traditional methods.
Signs of the disease
Spread of Phytophthora mycelium in the intercellular space of plant tissue. The incubation period of the disease, depending on weather conditions, can last from 3 to 14 days. In the humid warm days signs of infection occur much faster. Disease manifests itself in the following way:
- The leaves are formed spots dirty gray and black.
- On the plants, the inflorescence begins to actively turn yellow and black.
- On the existing subcutaneous fruits appear brown spots.
- Dark spots appear on the stems of plants.
A very rapid spread is another sign that characterizes late blight of tomatoes. Treatment should therefore be carried out as quickly as possible. If only one bush becomes ill, after a few days, others will turn black.
Prevention in the greenhouse and in the open
In closed greenhouse conditions are created favorable conditions for the development of such diseases as late blight of tomatoes. Treatment (photos of diseased plants can be seen on this page) in this case will be especially difficult. Therefore, prophylaxis should be given maximum attention. In the autumn the greenhouse need to be cleaned out from the tops of the tomatoes and other cultivated plants, weeds, etc. as carefully as possible.
Ideally, the site should create two greenhouses. In this case, planting tomatoes, for example, cucumbers can be alternated. However, such a possibility is, of course, is not every vacationer. Therefore, when growing tomatoes, you should take the following preventive measures:
- To use the "old" seeds 2-3 years ago. In this planting material viruses usually lose their activity.
- Grow early varieties and hybrids. In such plants, the fruits mature much earlier than they are affected by the phytophthora.
- During the growing season, plants should be fed from time to time with fertilizers containing copper.
- Water the plants need in the first half of the day, abundant and rare.
Approximately the same preventive measures are taken when growing tomatoes in the open field. In this case, tomatoes, among other things, are planted as far as possible from potatoes and other nightshade plants.
Tomato late blight treatment
What to do in that case, if prevention does not help, and plants pollen? To try to save the tomato crop can be chemical, biological or folk remedies. Drugs first variety there are several more effective and faster. However, when using the crop loses in terms of environmental safety. Biologics are not as effective, but completely harmless. Therefore they are usually used in combination with folk remedies.
The use of potassium permanganate
This cheap maroon powder can be used both for prevention and for treatment of Phytophthora. In the first case, potassium permanganate is used for soaking the seeds and spilling of the soil under the seedlings. This uses a very weak solution (1 g per 100 ml). Seeds are soaked for 15-20 min in the same weak solution should shed a seedbed before transplanting the seedlings. This will reduce the risk of such diseases as late blight of tomatoes. Treatment with potassium permanganate is usually mixed with other funds. In pure form it is used only for prevention.
In that case, if plants are already infected, treatment should carry out a solution prepared as follows:
- a glass of cloves of garlic passed through a meat grinder,
- the resulting mixture is diluted in 10 liters of water,
- in the solution is added 1-1.5 g of potassium permanganate,
- stir everything thoroughly.
The obtained liquid diseased plants should be treated 2-3 times with an interval of 8-10 days. In between the tomatoes need a few times to spray with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Use of the drug "Trichopol"
What are the ways of dealing with such diseases as late blight of tomatoes? Treatment “courses Beadle trichopolum” – a great answer to this question. According to many vacationers. Pills “Trichopolum” are sold in any drugstore. For a course of treatment of tomatoes you need to buy two plates, i.e. 20 tablets. Bred them in 10 liters of water. Spraying is carried out once in ten days. In that case, if it rains, a mandatory procedure should be repeated.
Treatment with "Metronidazole"
You can use other tablets to combat such diseases as late blight of tomatoes. Treatment of folk remedies – the procedure is usually simple and inexpensive. The price of "Trichopolum" is quite high. So sometimes instead of it spraying is done by "Metronidazole" – its cheaper counterpart. This drug is used about the same as "Trykhopol". That is 20 tablets dissolved in 10 liters of water. Spraying is done about once a week or two. Some gardeners believe "Metronidazole" even better than "Trykhopol".
Use of serum
There are other ways of dealing with such diseases as late blight of tomatoes. Treatment “Metronidazole” is considered to be quite effective. However, you can use for this purpose, and even more cheap money. For example, a very good solution is to mix one liter of whey, and 25 drops of iodine in 10 l of water. This also helps from Phytophthora. The fact that the serum creates on the leaves and stems of tomatoes thin film, through which can not penetrate spores of the fungus. Lactic acid bacteria they are afraid of fire. So to spray this mixture of plants should be abundant, so that the solution wet the leaves not only from above but from below. Treatments are carried out every ten days.
Products containing copper
This group of drugs can also be quite effective. No wonder some gardeners to prevent late blight just pierce the stems of Mature tomatoes of a copper wire. However, if the tomatoes on the plot much to defend in that way each plant will be difficult. It is much easier to use well known to many cottagers tool – Bordeaux fluid. Prepare it as follows:
- In a glassware pour 1 liter of water and dissolve in it 100 g of copper sulfate.
- In another container, quench 100 g of lime (also in a liter of water).
- A solution of vitriol is poured into milk of lime.
- Bring up the volume of Bordeaux liquid to 10 liters (pouring water).
To use this solution should be in the day of preparation. Store it impossible. With the same tools often struggle with such diseases as late blight of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Treatment Bordeaux liquid is produced by spraying the bushes. Processing plants as in most other cases, it should be once in ten days. You cannot use this fungicide immediately before harvest. From the last spraying until they Mature should be at least two to three weeks. After harvesting tomatoes should also have a good productivity.
Than to treat still?
Often, gardeners use other methods to save the crop from such diseases as late blight of tomatoes. Treatment of folk remedies can be, for example, using fungus-polypore. It should be dried and thoroughly crushed. Then 100 g of fungal mass, you need to pour one liter of boiling water. The mixture is filtered through cheesecloth. Spraying this infusion need to immediately after first noticed the symptoms of the disease. Two weeks later the procedure is repeated.
Late blight of tomatoes, which makes treatment – it is pretty complex, as already mentioned, distributed by landing very quickly. In order to prevent infection of a large number of plants must be carried out not only by spraying. At the beginning of the development of infection is the sick part of the tomatoes should be easy to remove. Sheets it is desirable not to disrupt, and cut with a knife. In this case, the danger of falling on the healthy parts of the plant, the dispute is reduced.