The concept of “ethics” has Greek roots. In literal translation it means “character”, “character”, “custom”. Generally, the concept is used in two senses. In the first place, ethics is called scientific discipline, which examines the morality and ethics, characteristics of their occurrence, factors and dynamics. This term refers to a direct set of rules of conduct in a particular area of activity.
Business ethics and business ethics
Certain requirements are imposed on human labor. Some of them are directly related to the behavior of the subject in the process of managing. Business ethics appeared relatively recently. The general labor moral was its basis. A key place in this concept is business ethics. It includes several components. Professional ethics of business consists of the rules of management, partner communication, behavior, etc.
Today's existing principles of business ethics did not appear in finished form. They were formed during a long historical period, in the course of the development of civilization. People consciously adopt certain customs and traditions. First principles of business ethics began to take shape in the heyday of ancient civilizations. It was at that time formulated the Hippocratic oath, developed norms and regulations of trade, perceptions of the importance of compliance with contractual terms. Meanwhile, the spiritual world of antiquity and the middle ages did not allow the connection between labor and wealth. These categories exist separately, independently from each other.
The emergence of a modern system
The business ethic that exists today, includes the set of norms and postulates, developed in the Protestant era. During the reformation, Western Europe experienced a major spiritual breakthrough. Its essence lies in redefining wealth and labor. It was at that time changed their attitude to commercial activities.
Ethics of business in Russia
The development of standards in our country has a number of features. They are caused by the specifics of the historical development of the state. In the 19th – early 20th century business ethics in Russia consisted of a complex of traditions that allowed her to play in the same position as other large countries. In that period a wide gained international fame Morozov, mammoth, Tretyakov, Chizhov, Alekseev, etc. At that time the country had a mechanism by which enterprise excluded those who could not comply with the established rules and regulations. Every city had its own merchant society. It had the right to recommend to an entrepreneur in a Guild or to deny him. Meanwhile, such powers also had to be earned. For each member merchant of the society of business ethics was in the first place. Everyone who joined the Guild, declared value of its capital. This greatly simplified the control activities of the tax service. If the merchant violated business ethics, the Provincial court could deprive him of the right to do business. The result was developed and firmly established in the everyday life of such rules and concepts as “do not hand scanty giver”, “trade truth, more profit will be” “word-bill” and so on. Later began to form partnerships. They were United by entrepreneurs without any of the founding treaties, and the partnership kept on a merchant word.
In this era of business ethics was virtually absent. It was conditioned by the attitude of the ruling elite towards entrepreneurship, as such. It was seen as an occupation, acting as a “source of profit”. Under socialism, private property was not recognized – it was common. If the pre-revolutionary business ethics largely based on the norms of Orthodoxy in the period of socialism they were replaced by Marxist ideas. They justified the comparative independence of morality as a model of social consciousness and claimed the class character of the norms and requirements. In this regard, the employment relationship was based on the principles of priority public before the personal, discipline before the initiative and so on.
Today there is a kind of mutation of existing forms of cooperation, search for new viable options of doing business. On the formation of a new class of entrepreneurs is influenced by various forces, values. This is due, primarily, to the presence of business people of different nationalities, beliefs. In domestic entrepreneurship, in the 90-ies contained a lot of foreign persons. Their activities are, in turn, is based on the rules of Western business ethics. Cooperation with foreign entrepreneurs leads to the intertwining of national traits with the world. To a certain extent it facilitates the integration of domestic business in international.
Meanwhile, the development of Russian business ethics and the inclusion of the country in international traffic is slowed down by several factors. Consider a few of them. In the first place, not very effective, the principle of the inviolability of individual (private) ownership. Second, domestic business is functioning in terms of the failure of so much wealth in all its form, success as such, even if it is the result of their own labor. In addition, currently there is a special relationship to power and law. The ethical paradox of the domestic business is, according to experts, is that the moral aspect of an action is often not determined by personal choice or by law. In practice, it is due mainly to the need to survive in the face of uncertainty, lack and imperfection of legislative base, indifference, abuse of authority. Currently, the economic situation in the country is quite complicated. The government needs to look for options that would satisfy all parties.
The existing contradictions can be eliminated only if the state fulfills its obligations to create normal, civilized conditions for doing business. In this case, the entry into the power and entrepreneurship of people willing to change themselves and adapt to new economic models will be possible. For them, their own welfare will be quite legitimate, but at the same time its achievement will be carried out through increasing the welfare of the state.