Russian tax legislation establishes a large number of schemes in which firms can meet their obligations to the state budget. Among those — a single tax on imputed income or imputed income. Many businesses prefer to work under him and not under any other — because of the unique opportunity to pay to the budget a fixed amount regardless of the total sales. But there are still a number of nuances imputed income that determine its attractiveness for the Russian business. What are they? How does the enterprise go to PT?
Difference of imputed income from other taxes
Unified tax on imputed income, provided by the Russian legislation, is classified as Federal, but can be also adjusted with the participation of municipal authorities. Its main feature — the need to transfer to the budget contributions fixed value, outside of any correlation with actual revenue of the organization. This feature currently allows many businesses to significantly reduce the payment load.
Work on UTII can only those companies that conduct activities in those areas that are determined by law as compatible with the relevant tax. Among such segments are:
services in repair, maintenance, cleaning of vehicles
- lease of land plots, as well as places for trade.
However, restrictions on the type of business activity is not the only criterion that determines the ability to work UTII. Consider stipulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation additional requirements to businesses applying to conduct activities under UTII.
Conditions of work UTII
Transition to the uniform tax on imputed income for the owner is possible if:
– the company employs over 100 people,
– the share of other organizations in the company's share capital does not exceed 25 %,
– the entrepreneur is not registered as individual entrepreneurs under the patent system of taxation (as a subject of the same segment, which falls under UTII),
- a businessman does not own a catering service that works with educational, medical or social institutions,
– the entrepreneur is working on the transfer for temporary possession of the gas station.
Let us now consider how the firm can go on the imputed income.
Procedure for switching to UTII
Unified tax on imputed income the entrepreneur can begin to pay immediately upon engage in activities that fall under the appropriate scheme of taxation. Until 2013 the firm had to work UTII in any case, if their commercial activities came under this tax, but now businesses can apply the corresponding calculation with the state voluntarily.
However, if the kind of activity that fall under UTII, becomes for the firm constant, we recommend that you notify the FTS about it. Once the entrepreneur terminates the business, involving the relevant type of commercial activities you can not pay the imputed income. It is also recommended to send in FNS notice that the activities that fall under unified tax on imputed income, is no longer maintained by the company.
Criteria for the transition to UTII
As we noted above, the transfer of business regime is possible only if scheduled activity, compatible with the tax system. However, these activities should be taken at the level of municipal sources of law. A situation may arise in which to start a business under the imputed income is sufficient to result in compliance with the required criteria only some parts of the production infrastructure.
For example, if the entrepreneur is engaged in the hotel business, it may be sufficient to reduce floor area of sleeping rooms within the object to levels of less than 500 sq. m. as soon As the hotel meets this criterion, it is possible to work UTII, notifying on the beginning of activities subject to the application of the system of taxation. But as soon as the hotel is being reconstructed and its area exceeds 500 sq m, the entrepreneur loses the right to work for the unified tax on imputed income.
Reporting imputed income
UTII, like other tax system requires accountability on the part of the enterprise before, on, and, of course, timely settlements with the state. The specificity of imputed income is that it is necessary to pay in relation to actual place of commercial activities. The Declaration also served in FNS in correlation with geography activities. If the entrepreneur is not registered with the IRS as the payer of the single tax on imputed income, the procedure must be made within 5 days after the beginning of commercial activities. The same applies if the firm is operating at the place of registration, as we noted above. Within 5 working days of the FTS should carry out the necessary procedures for the formulation of the company on the account as a payer UTII.
Main forms of reporting on UTII
Financial statements — liabilities, which is established only in respect of taxpayers having the status of legal entities. Entrepreneur should not give in on relevant sources. The basic forms of the accounting reporting at PT are:
– the balance sheet, as well as the necessary explanations to it
– reports: profit and loss, of changes in equity, movements of funds, targeted use of funds
– explanations for report containing information about profit and loss
– audit report for firms that are required to create the appropriate documents.
In some cases it is possible to provide simplified reporting forms. In particular, this opportunity can benefit small businesses. Simplified forms of reporting involve less work for accountants calculation of certain indicators. Form of reporting on imputed income are recorded in the Orders of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation.
The calculation of imputed income
Have a look at what amounts to a single tax on imputed income. As with other systems of taxation figures that the entrepreneur must pay to the Treasury, are calculated based on tax base and tax rate. The first component if the company operates on the imputed income, calculated according to a rather complicated formula.
To determine the base for the unified tax, multiply the figures in the baseline yield, the physical indicator, the deflator coefficient which is determined on the level of Federal legislation, an additional coefficient K2, which is fixed in sources of law on the level of subjects of the Russian Federation.
Single tax rate defined by the tax code, is 15 %. Law recorded the tax period for unified tax on imputed income — quarter. Consider these components of the "formula" for the calculation of imputed income in more detail.
Base yield and physical characteristic
The benchmark return is a conditional indicator, which correlates with the estimated revenue of the enterprise in terms of value on a certain unit of physical measure, which relates to a particular type of commercial activity. Can vary greatly depending on the specific activity of the firm. Physical indicator reflects the number of commercial activities that form the tax base.
In the "formula" of calculating the imputed income are applied 2 ratio. The first, called K1, is determined by multiplying the other two factors are fixed during the previous period and recorded in the preceding calendar year. The appropriate values are set in the sources of law at the Federal level. The factor, called K2, has a direct relationship to underlying profitability. It is calculated taking into account the specifics of business activities in the aspect of the range of goods or services, seasonality, the characteristics of the work schedule of the company, income, geographical characteristics of services, etc.
If the entrepreneur operates within several segments that fall under UTII, then the calculation of the single tax should be implemented for each line of business. There are a number of nuances related to accountability in case of payment of the considered tax for different types of activities. First, the Declaration for the unified tax in this case may contain multiple Sections 2. Second, if a firm operates in different municipalities, then the imputed income should be calculated and to pay for certain RCM. In fact, the firm must pay certain types of common tax in correlation with specific varieties of commercial activities.
The mutual concession of PT and other charges
The calculation of imputed income may be subject to the mutual awarding of the single tax on imputed income and other payments necessary for the entrepreneur to transfer to the budget. Thus, imputed income may be reduced by the amount of contributions payable by the business in FIU, the FSS and sick leave, which are paid to the employees. However, the classification of the relevant payments and imputed income implies certain limitations:
– take into account only those amounts that are paid to the budget by the time of the Declaration in FNS
- Only those payments for sick leave, which were made by the organization itself, and not by the FSS, are taken into account;
– reduce imputed income due to the allocation of public funds is possible only 50 %.
The order of payment of single tax
To pay the single tax entrepreneurs have until the 25th day of the month following the reporting period. The amount of imputed income, calculated to be paid to the budget, should be directed to the accounts of the Treasury, and subsequently distributed to budgets in accordance with the provisions of the legislation.
What taxes are not paid at UTII
It can be noted that imputed income is a tax system that involves the release of owner from payment of such charges, provided that OSN — diagram calculations of business and government, implemented by default or in case of conscious choice of the business owner. Entrepreneur, paying into the Treasury of the unified tax on imputed income may not be paid to the state:
- Income tax;
- property tax;
- VAT (excluding customs fees, as well as payments that are required to transfer to the budget tax agents).
Important point: if a firm pays only the unified tax, the types of activities that do not fall under unified tax on imputed income, subject to taxation in the order established by the legislation for these specific activities. If they involve the transfer to the budget noted fees, the relevant obligations, the entrepreneur should do.
Taxes supplementing the UTII
Russian law provides for a number of fees that can be part of imputed income. Including those of transport, land, and tax on gambling business. In fact, no correlation between the imputed income and such charges are not, they company must pay regardless of the specific taxation system in which they operate.
Features of accounting with UTII
For business entities legally established the need for management accounting at PT. Note that the unified tax for entrepreneurs such obligations is not intended. In some cases, imputed income may be subject to internal reporting. The main thing that you need to consider are physical indicators. As the experts in the field of taxation, the legislation does not reglamentary the way in which should be recorded the numbers in internal accounting at PT. It is noteworthy that the relevant documents may be required not so much on. This office will be sufficient to obtain the standardized formats of financial statements, what can be said about other supervising state structures.
Certain nuances characterized by the activities while using the imputed income and other tax systems. This scenario presupposes, first of all, separate accounting of income and expenses for each type of commercial activities. As a rule, the distinction between revenue special difficulties entrepreneurs have no objections. Another thing, if you split the costs. The fact is, in some cases, their problematic be attributed to the fact that should be considered when calculating imputed income it is either USN, if the company uses a single tax under the simplified tax system. Businesses are encouraged to follow the provisions of article 274 of NK of the Russian Federation, that is, to allocate the costs in proportion to sales of various types of commercial activities. If some types of activities the firm earns more, and the expenditure in this part should be higher than in the other segments.
Another possible complexity of accounting while the use of imputed income and other taxation schemes – that in respect of each payment method business with the government can be legally established different reporting periods. The provisions of the tax code, there is no specificity on the issues that concern the delineation of those costs in the case that the reporting periods for different types of activities are not the same. It is recommended in such scenarios is to seek advice from the specific territorial structure of FTS, in which it is assumed the direction of tax reporting.
Single tax for individual entrepreneurs or for companies especially attractive because it is possible to reduce the payment burden on businesses. However, the fact of the company's work UTII is not the only way to save on taxes. The practical involvement of the single tax can be done in different ways. Consider this aspect in more detail.
Ways to reduce UTII
So, the main component of the "formula" of calculating the imputed income that affect the actual value of the corresponding tax, is a physical indicator. For example, it is known that imputed income may be paid based on the area of the room. Therefore, the entrepreneur can optimize the criteria, reducing the area of the premises employed in the business, if it allows the specificity of commercial activities.
There is another way to reduce the tax burden of imputed income due to the reduction of the coefficient K2. A very common way is the translation of the graph of operating on 6-day mode. In this case, the firm will work about 27 days a month. Therefore, the tax base in the activation of factor K2 can be reduced relative to the proportion of 27 to 31 — the number of days in the full month. However, in this case, it is recommended to form some kind of evidence in confirmation of the corresponding chart. This can be the documents of the CMC, report cards, etc. the Experts recommend to focus on the sources of the second type, since they can reflect the schedule of the visit to the company employees.
Main advantages of the UTII
So, we will examine the key advantages that characterize the UTII.
First of all, a single, simplified tax (in comparison with DOS) gives businesses the opportunity to significantly reduce the payment burden through payments to the government fixed fees. Legally there are no restrictions on the amount of revenue to businesses operating on the imputed income. Payment of single tax on imputed income exempt taxpayers from payments to the budget of many other charges. In the case of imputed income assume the alignment is rather simple schemes of cooperation of business and FTS, first of all, in the aspect of reporting. If the firm functions as the object of ownership of IP, in this case, all you need to provide to FNS, is a Declaration of imputed income.