Duroc is a breed of meat-oriented pigs, which is widely distributed throughout the world and has high meat qualities. The problem of providing the world's population with food is acute. The production of meat products requires serious investments. Pig farming is an industry that can provide quick and efficient return on investment.
In the world there are more than one hundred different breeds of pigs. In pig breeding there are four main breeding directions:
- Breeds of universal productivity. They include animals of meat-and-fat direction. This is the largest group. They give numerous offspring in the shortest possible time.
- The second group includes pigs bred for meat and bacon direction. This includes the breed of pigs duroc (see photo below). They get lean meat pork from them.
- Sebaceous - have excellent fattening qualities. In carcasses, the bulk is fat.
- Decorative - they include minigigs and micro pics. They have no great economic significance. They were taken out to keep the guinea pigs as pets.
All groups of animals are in demand.
Brief description of pigs of Duroc breed: large animals of red suits, compact sturdy build, with pronounced meat exterior.
The original animals that served to remove the pigs of duroc were imported into the American continent by numerous emigrants.
The founders include red Guinea pigs from the West coast of Africa. Large animals are covered with a soft reddish beard, was crossed with the Portuguese and Spanish individuals. Later, America was introduced to the Berkshires. They are distinguished by the reddish, sandy sometimes a suit. These animals also participated in the formation of a new breeding group.
The result of numerous and varied crosses were animals with certain pedigree signs. With them, systematic work was continued.
Parallel work was conducted in two states - New York (Duroc) and Jersey (jersey). Initially, both breed groups were bred independently and had different characteristics:
- Individuals jersey were large, late-ripening, with a rough skeleton. They had a crest along the back, weakly expressed, a small head, wide overhanging ears.
- The Duroc breed of pigs (photos posted in the article) was inferior in size to the animals of the Jersey breed. Hallmarks Durakov were early maturity, thin bones, lovely meat shape and very high cost of feed.
Over time, animals were crossed among themselves. A new breed was obtained, slightly less than jersey. From the New York representatives, they inherited the elegance of skeleton and early maturity. Duroc was officially registered in 1883.
Today duroc is a breed of pigs, which is a large, hardy animal, perfectly adapted to pasture content.
Payment for feed is one of the most important economic indicators in meat cattle breeding. The profitability of the entire farm depends on it, in addition, there are a number of indicators that determine the profitability of pig production.
Duroc (breed of pigs): characteristics of external signs
- The body is wide and deep, of moderate length (up to 180 cm), with a well-made ham.
- Strong constitution.
- The back has an arcuate shape.
- High, strong legs, with a straight "elephant" post.
- Head with a curved (not strongly) profile, with full ganache, ears meat overhanging.
- The color is red with variations of shades from golden to dark cherry.
If initially duroc was greasy, then thanks to the many years of efforts of breeders and systematic breeding selection, modern animals have become more meat-oriented. This demanded consumer demand.
The ability to live in fresh air significantly reduces the cost of maintaining and breeding pigs. The breed is susceptible to the disease "atrophic rhinitis", which determines the area of breeding animals - a dry and warm climate. From atrophic rhinitis, unfortunately, no medication preventive measures save.
Duroc (breed of pigs): advantages
Breeders worked on securing the necessary qualities. The merits of animals include:
- fast growth;
- early maturity;
- homogeneity of the carcass;
- high quality meat;
- the possibility of grazing;
- calm disposition.
Dyuroki have proven themselves in the industrial (user) cross. Excellent performance in such hybrids:
- a large white breed of pigs and a meat breed of pigs of duroc;
- the breed of Landrace pigs and the meat breed of pigs of Duroc.
Industrial crossing gives a great métis, able to grow quickly and recoup the cost of feed. Great meat quality and a stable transfer of their properties to offspring allow me to lean on Duroc pigs for breeding.
Duroc - a breed of pigs, characterized by stability, is among the four best in the world. The number of livestock is second. The most widespread it has received in the USA, Europe, China. Due to local customs that do not allow Muslims to eat pig meat, there is almost no Duroc breed in the Middle East.
How are the shortcomings noted:
- rather low fertility (an average of 9 piglets);
- exactingness in the selection of the right diet (need protein nutrition);
- predisposition to atrophic rhinitis (runny nose);
- wrong position of limbs.
The dry and warm climate ensures a healthy number of pigs and a high yield of young animals. Duroc - a breed of pigs, reviews of which in terms of meat performance can not be negative. Gentle, with interlayer of fat, the so-called marbled meat is particularly popular among consumers.
Protein food provides the correct formation of the body Constitution and nutritional quality of meat, which is famous for the breed Duroc. Pigs should ensure that the correct protein food, otherwise the animal's growth may slow down. The body will weaken and as a result, the pig farmer instead of the expected profit will get sick of immature animals.
The ability of pigs to find vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients contained in the grass in the pasture, contribute to the proper development of the young organism. Ecologically clean feed ensures the formation of quality tasty meat.
For feeding use:
- combined silo;
- cereals (do not abuse them, otherwise the meat will be too greasy).
The number of feedings in the winter is increased to three times, in the summer time they are limited to two. If you adhere to this schedule, you can get a homogeneous carcass of excellent meat with a thickness of bacon no more than 1.5 cm.
By volume, the adult individual eats up to 2.5 buckets of feed per day. This includes dairy products, vegetables, waste from the table and other available food.
Cultivation of young animals
To guarantee fertilization of the sow, experts recommend to mating on the second day of hunting females. The first sign of hunting is the concern of the animal, increases its motor activity, the female refuses food and water.
Heat and dryness - such conditions require a breed of duroc. Pigs are kept in warm rooms. When farrowing, the air temperature should be kept at least 25 ° C. Pig must always be insulated, put a dry litter on the floor (usually sawdust). If necessary, in winter, use additional heating means.
Taking into account the fact that the number of piglets born is small (up to 10 animals), they have enough milk for their mother. To improve its assimilation, piglets are given special nutritional supplements with vitamins. It should be noted that sows are very caring towards their offspring.
With proper care and maintenance, up to 92% of piglets survive. This is a high figure.
Best of all for the pros, breeding this breed can say its productivity. Duroc - a breed of pigs, the performance of which looks like this:
- high early maturity - 100 kg can reach to 6 months of age;
- the average daily gain can reach 950 grams (the record was fixed at a rate of 1016 grams);
- average fertility is assessed as satisfactory;
- the survival rate of the young is 92%;
- temper calm;
- sows have a very good maternal instinct;
- remarkable taste of meat, carcases homogeneous;
- the boar's weight reaches 370 kg, sows - 320 kg;
- slaughter yield more than 80%;
- the thickness of the fat does not exceed 2 cm.
Animals are difficult to maintain in the climatic conditions of Russia. Wet and cool weather can provoke the development of atrophic rhinitis. But with all the requirements of the content of the breed, including abundant protein nutrition, the result will be excellent.
It makes sense to grow pig duroc for meat. The breed of pigs, which is confirmed by the perspectives of the use of animals of this particular breed group and as an independent breed, and as an improvement for the local livestock.