Umeltsev to collect all kinds of mechanisms from improvised funds in our country has always been enough. These words are confirmed by Soviet magazines with a large circulation (we will not recall the names), transmissions like "crazy hands", books "Do it yourself," and numerous videos on the Internet. In this article, we will disassemble the engine on water.
All devices that are designed to convert energy into mechanical work are called engines.
The engine on the water is a fuzzy definition. Under it you can mean:
- screw engines of boat types (can use the internal combustion engine on water, steam and others);
- engines on jet traction (hydrocycles, armored personnel carriers and again submarines);
- a generator that turns the energy of water into mechanical work (an engine that works on water);
- the steam engine (the engine running on water, due to the simplicity of the structure considered in detail will not be).
The steam engine is arranged in a similar way: the fuel is refueled in the boiler, the water boils in the cylinder, the high-pressure piston rises from above under pressure until the cylinder valve opens. Due to the piston, the mechanism comes into motion.
About screw engines
In water transport, the following principle is predominantly used: a screw of certain parameters is attached to the engine (steam, electric, diesel, gasoline and, less likely, gas).
About Jet Engines
On the device - water is passed through itself due to screws (the missiles have a slightly different principle). The peculiarity consists in a directed jet, due to which the object comes into motion. For a visual representation it is worth remembering the principle of the water pump. Advantages of such a system is the efficiency of operation at high revs and relative noiselessness.
About water generators
If there is a question "how to make the engine on the water?", The rotor can be rotated by rotating the screw. It, in turn, causes magnetic induction in the conductor coils. It causes alternating current. The current either directly drives the object, or accumulates a charge in the battery. The battery is already being distributed for needs.
Principle of assembly
We will analyze an approximate structure of a circuit using an electric generator, and we attach a jet engine to it. This will clearly show how a certain element works. The circuit will consist of the following components: rotating blades for an alternator, an AC / DC converter, a battery, a compatible electric motor, a thrust system.
To ensure the efficiency of the generator, it is necessary at least approximately to represent the speed of rotation of the rotor. Starting from the rotation speed, we get an idea of the power that the generator must produce.
The electric asynchronous alternator consists of a stator (fixed part) and a rotor (rotating). The stator consists of a block of superimposed dielectric sheet metal (not conductive current) with cut through grooves, and magnetic coils inserted into them. The coils must not touch the block. For this, special gaskets are used inside, and arrows on the outside of the insulating material. Outside the grooves, they should not speak. The coils are also isolated from each other. The shape and the elements of the rotor can differ from each other.
We take as a basis engines on the water with our own hands with the calculation for three phases, since this species is most common. This means that three coils of the same size will be used. At home at a voltage of 220 volts DC at 19 amperes, you will need a wire with a cross section of 1.5 millimeters. Work will be subject to consumption not exceeding 4.1 kilowatts. It is also necessary to take into account the frequency of rotation. The number of rotations per second is measured in hertz. In Russia, the purity of 50 Hertz per second is accepted for electronics. The wires at the output are connected by a "triangle" or "star".
Watt represents the product amperes per volt. Kilowatt is 1000 watts. Volt is equal to the product Ampere (current strength) per Ohm (resistance). By adding turns, you increase the power of the generator, but also the necessary required work when the rotor rotates. In this case, it is recommended to build on the requirements of the battery for consumption, and not on the return.
Of course, it is possible to make calculations of the future product, but for safety reasons it is recommended to experiment with the small power of the hand-held generator, since it is not possible to assemble completely the working model from the first time. The reason for this can be minor shortcomings, inappropriate materials and so on, and as a consequence of violation of safety regulations - someone's life. Use a 12 volt battery and a smaller diameter wire to start. As a rotor - a simple ferromagnetic core (iron cylinder is suitable). To begin with, you can make an auto engine on the water for some kind of machine.
From the alternator, you need to make a circuit from a transformer (high voltage to low), 4 diode rectangles (one-way), a capacitor (for trouble-free operation), a resistor and a zener (limit on the top and bottom bars) and the last regulator. The whole circuit is connected to the storage battery. From the battery directly the engine under the screw. The engine can be similarly manufactured.
Engine for jet propulsion is the extract of the wires (with waterproofing) or a bobbin. Elongation is located at the bottom base of the boat. The screw attaches to it. The shape of the screw, the angles, and number of petals at the discretion.
In a small size, a boat with manual recharging and a nozzle will be produced, which will ensure high speed. If the scale is increased, then, with the right approach, a powerful engine on the water will turn out, and most importantly, skills will appear.
On a note
- Without fail use an ammeter.
- The strength of the current depends on consumption and varies depending on it.
- Conductors should be covered with insulation and not damaged.
- To insert conductors in the grooves, a special tool or rubber hammer can be used.
- Open elements must not be touched while they are working.
- After turning off the engine, there remains a residual charge in it, it is worth waiting for the excess to come out or to be removed with an additional device.
- For convenience, the circuit breakers must be connected so that it is easy to switch off the engine on water.
- Perhaps you should think about the cooling system;
- An important element can be a relay for voltage monitoring and a protective shutdown device.