There are always enough skilled craftsmen to assemble all kinds of mechanisms from improvised means in our country. These words are confirmed by the Soviet journals in large numbers (we will not recall the names), programs like “Crazy Pens”, “Do it yourself” books, and numerous videos on the Internet. In this article we will analyze the engine on the water.
All devices that are designed to convert energy into mechanical work, are called engines.
Engine on the water - the definition is blurred. Under it you can mean:
- boat type screw engines (can use an internal-combustion engine on water, steam, and others);
- engines on jet propulsion (jet skis, armored personnel carriers and, again, submarines);
- a generator that converts water energy into mechanical work (an engine that runs on water);
- steam engine (the engine running on water, due to the simplicity of the structure will not be considered in detail).
The steam engine is arranged in the same way: the fuel is filled into the boiler, water boils in the cylinder, and the weighty piston rises from above under pressure until the cylinder valve opens. Due to the piston, a mechanism is set in motion.
About screw engines
In water transport, the following principle is mainly used: a screw of certain parameters is attached to the engine (steam, electric, diesel, petrol and, with less probability, gas).
About jet engines
On the device - water is passed through itself at the expense of screws (rockets have a slightly different principle). The peculiarity lies in the directional jet, due to which the object is set in motion. For a visual representation it is worth remembering the principle of the water pump. The advantages of this system is the efficiency of work at high speeds and relative noiselessness.
About water generators
If the question “how to make an engine on water?” Arises, then due to the rotation of the screw, the rotor can be set in motion. He, in turn, causes magnetic induction in the coils of the conductor. It causes alternating current. The current either drives the object directly, or accumulates a charge in the battery. The battery is already being distributed for needs.
Let us analyze the approximate structure of the circuit using an electric generator, and attach to it a jet-powered engine. This clearly shows how a particular item works. The circuit will consist of the following components: rotating blades for the alternator, the alternating current converter in the direct current, the battery, the compatible electric motor, the thrust system.
To ensure the efficiency of the generator, it is necessary to at least approximately represent the rotational speed of the rotor. Based on the speed of rotation, we get an idea of the power that the generator should produce.
An electric asynchronous alternator consists of a stator (fixed part) and a rotor (rotating). The stator consists of a block of superposed metal sheets of a dielectric (non-conductive) with cut-through slots, and magnetic coils inserted into them. Coils should not come into contact with the unit. For this purpose, special pads are used inside, and the arrows outside are made of insulating material. They should not protrude beyond the grooves. Coils are also insulated from each other. The shape and elements of the rotor may differ from each other.
Let's take as a basis engines on the water with your hands with the expectation of three phases, since this type is the most common. This means that three coils of the same size will be used. At home, at a voltage of 220 volts DC at 19 amps, a wire with a cross section of 1.5 millimeters is required. Will work under the condition of consumption not higher than 4.1 kilowatts. It is also worth considering the frequency of rotation. The number of rotations per second is measured in hertz. In Russia, a purity of 50 Hertz per second is adopted for electronics. The wires at the exit are connected by a "triangle" or "star".
Watt is the product of amps per volt. Kilowatt is 1000 watts. Volt is equal to the product of Amperes (current) per Ohm (resistance). Adding turns, you will increase the power of the generator, but also the necessary work required during rotation of the rotor. In this case, it is recommended to build on the requirements of the battery for consumption, not return.
Of course, it is possible to make calculations for the future product, but for safety reasons, it is recommended to experiment with low power of the manual generator, since without experience it is impossible to assemble a fully working model from the first time. The reason for this may be minor shortcomings, inappropriate materials, etc., and the result of a security breach is someone's life. Use a 12 volt battery and a smaller wire to start. As a rotor - a simple ferromagnetic core (an iron cylinder will do). For starters, you can make a car engine on the water for any cars.
From an alternator, you will need to make a circuit from a transformer (high voltage to low), 4 diodes rectangle (one-way movement), a capacitor (for uninterrupted operation), a resistor and a zener diode (limited by upper and lower bars) and the last controller. The entire circuit is connected to a storage battery. From the battery directly to the engine under the screw. The engine can be made similar.
Engine for jet propulsion is the extract of the wires (with waterproofing) or a bobbin. Elongation is located at the bottom base of the boat. The screw attaches to it. The shape of the screw, the angles, and number of petals at the discretion.
In a small size you will get a boat with manual recharging and a nozzle, which will provide high speed. If the scale is increased, then with the right approach you will get a powerful engine on the water, and most importantly, skills will appear.
On a note
- It is mandatory to use an ammeter.
- Current strength depends on consumption and varies depending on it.
- Conductors must be insulated and not damaged.
- A special tool or a rubber hammer can be used to insert the conductors into the grooves.
- To open items can not touch as long as they work.
- After the engine is turned off, a residual charge remains in it, it is worth waiting for the surplus to come out or to remove it with the help of an additional device.
- For convenience, you should connect the circuit breakers so that you can easily turn off the engine on the water.
- It may be worth thinking about the cooling system;
- An important element can be a relay for voltage control and a safety device.