Deja vu is an unusual effect, in which the present is perceived as the past. Since ancient times, people have been trying to find an explanation for such a phenomenon. Forgotten dreams, fantasies, fatigue, reincarnation - many ideas and theories put forward by scientists, psychics, psychologists and parapsychologists.
The origin of the word “deja vu”
The French word déjà vu sounds like “deja vu” in Russian. This phenomenon conveys the feeling of a person that he was already in this place or knows people whom he had never met before.
The effect of deja vu (translation of the word “already seen”) has the opposite phenomenon. Jamais vu - "never seen." It occurs at the moment when a person does not know, does not recall a familiar situation or place.
It is believed that such phenomena are associated with the work of the brain. They relate to the feelings and sensations of man, so their study is difficult.
The word "deja vu" in Russian is usually written together. This difference from the French version has no serious justification. Such writing is used for simplicity and convenience.
Deja vu effect
Déjà vu is a well-known term often used in psychology, psychiatry, and everyday life. Deja vu, or false memory, is a mental state. During his time a person gets the feeling that he was already in a similar place or situation.
The phenomenon of deja vu arises unexpectedly, lasts a few seconds and also suddenly disappears. It can not be caused by artificial means. In the book “The Psychology of the Future”, Emil Bouarak first used a similar term.
In healthy people, the effect of deja vu happens several times in life. Patients with epilepsy can experience this sensation several times a day. In this case, deja vu they are often accompanied by hallucinations.
Why is deja vu happening? Early Christians claimed that the phenomenon is associated with the reincarnation of man, his memories of past lives. However, in the 6th century, this theory was recognized as heretical by the highest church authority.
The causes of deja vu
Deja vu is a mental state in which a distinct feeling is created that the individual has already experienced similar feelings or has been in the same situation. Such a memory is not related to specific moments from the past. It refers to the past as a whole; a person cannot identify a similar situation with a similar one in his conscious past.
The phenomenon was studied by psychologists, psychics, physicians, priests. Why does deja vu arise? What triggers his appearance? There are several assumptions why the phenomenon sometimes occurs with healthy people.
- Forgotten dreams or fantasies. They manifest themselves when a person gets into a place or a situation that he saw in dreams or dreams.
- Fatigue or sleepiness also contributes to forgetting. Memories are erased from memory. When a person finds himself again in a similar situation, a deja vu effect occurs.
- Emotional state during puberty or midlife crisis, when a person tries to anticipate the picture of the ideal future or is nostalgic about the past time.
- Anomaly of brain development. This hypothesis belongs to an American scientist who found that a lack of gray matter in the subcortex can trigger a deja vu effect.
- Serious problems associated with the mental state of a person that must be resolved with the help of professional medicine.
Types of deja vu
What does deja vu mean? This is a generic term. It includes shaky memories of sounds, smells, places, situations, feelings and sensations. In fact, the deja vu effect is delimited by narrower concepts.
Déjà visité ("deja visit") - already been here. Being in a new place a person feels that it is familiar to him. That he was already here once. This term is associated with location and orientation in space.
Presque vu - almost seen. The most popular phenomenon is when a person cannot remember a word, a name, a name, a phrase. This condition is very disturbing, distracting. Up to 2-3 days may linger in the search for the desired word.
Déjà vécu (deja veku) - already heard sounds and smells. This is a vague feeling that a person can predict what will happen next. He remembers familiar smells or hears sounds that give impetus to further memories. But the effect is limited only by sensations. No further memories happen.
Déjà senti (deja senti) - already felt. Feeling that feelings or emotions have already been. As if the person already felt the same thing as at the moment.
Jamais vu ("Zamevu") - translated into Russian as "never seen." This is a situation where a person is familiar with the place, the situation, the environment, but he does not recognize it. Such a phenomenon creates a sense of another reality. It seems to a person that he is in a different time, an unfamiliar place.
Such a distortion of memory is a subspecies of cryptomnese, it is correlated with mental disorders. Zamevyu is rare and is a sign of schizophrenia, senile psychosis.
Frequent deja vu
Rarely occurs in healthy people frequent deja vu. This happens when layering processing several types of memory. Frequent deja vu, accompanied by anxiety, smells - a functional disorder that should be treated by a psychologist, a neurologist. Also, frequent deja vu is a symptom of transient-lobar epilepsy.
The phenomenon is based on an individual neurophysiological anomaly. It can be congenital or acquired (for example, after neurosurgical operation). Psychiatrists warn that frequent deja vu may be the initial stage of mental personality disorder.
Studies deja vu
Deja vu is an interesting phenomenon, which began to be engaged in scientific research a little more than a century ago. German scientists in the XIX century suggested that the phenomenon manifests itself at the time of great fatigue. It is then that malfunctions occur in the cerebral cortex.
Sigmund Freud believed that deja vu arises from the resurrection of subconscious, forgotten fantasies. Arthur Allin argued that the phenomenon is a fragment of a forgotten dream.
Hermann Sno hypothesized that the memory is stored in the form of holograms. Each fragment of it contains certain information. The smaller the fragment of the hologram - the vague the memory. At the moment of coincidence of the actual situation with any fragment of memory, a deja vu effect occurs.
According to the theory of Pierre Glura memory consists of 2 systems - recovery and recognition. When deja vu occurs, the recognition system is activated, and the recovery system is temporarily disabled.
Scientific substantiation of the phenomenon
Modern scientists believe that the deja vu phenomenon is associated with a specific area of the brain. It is called the hippocampus. This zone is responsible for the identification of objects. With the help of experiments it was revealed that the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus can instantly recognize the smallest differences in similar images.
A person, experiencing something in the present, is able to relate his sensations to past feelings and try to predict his reaction in the future. At this point, the necessary areas of the brain are turned on, the short-term and long-term memory begins to interact. That is, the past, present and future are present in the human brain. Therefore, the events of the present can be perceived as the past - that is why deja vu occurs.
The hippocampus divides human experience into past and present. Sometimes impressions are too similar, a person happens in identical situations many times. There is a slight glitch in the connections between long-term and short-term memory. The hippocampus compares similar memories, learns the stage setting - and then there is a déjà vu.
Mystical substantiation of the phenomenon
Experts in the field of parapsychology, extrasensory perception suggest that the phenomenon of deja vu is directly related to reincarnation. Human life is a certain stage of acquiring knowledge and experience. After the end of one stage, a new round of life begins. In the next incarnation man has to go the other way and acquire other experience and knowledge.
Supporters of reincarnation argue that the phenomenon of deja vu - memories of past lives, stages passed. Just as a person is able to know a place or a situation, he can identify a person familiar from a past life. This is what explains strong feelings for strangers at first sight. It can be love or hate. Such feelings confirm that in past incarnations people were familiar.