The problem of maladjustment is that the impossibility of adapting to a new situation not only worsens the social and mental development of a person, but also leads to recursive pathology. This means that a disadapted person, while ignoring this mental state, will not be able to be active in any society in the future.
Disadaptation is the mental state of a person (more often a child than an adult), in which the psychosocial status of the individual does not correspond to the new social environment, which makes it difficult or completely abolishes the possibility of adaptation.
There are three types:
- Pathogenic maladjustment is a condition resulting from disruption of the human psyche, in psychical diseases and disabilities. Such exclusion is treated depending on the possibility of curing diseases-causes.
- Psychosocial maladjustment is the inability to adapt to the new environment due to individual social background, gender and age changes of personality. This type of distress is usually temporary but, in some cases, the problem can worsen, and then psychosocial maladjustment develop into pathogenic.
- Social exclusion is a phenomenon that is characterized by antisocial behavior and violation of the process of socialization. It also applies to educational maladjustment. The boundaries between the social and psychosocial maladjustment rather blurred and are particular manifestations of each of them.
Disadaptation of schoolchildren as a type of social unsuitability to the situation
Stopping on social maladjustment, it is worth mentioning that this problem is especially acute in the early school years. In connection with this, another term appears, such as “school disadaptation”. This is a situation in which the child, for various reasons, becomes incapable of both building a “personality-society” relationship and learning in principle.
Psychologists interpret this situation differently: as a subspecies of social disadaptation or as an independent phenomenon in which social disadaptation is only the reason for school. However, excluding this relationship, there are three more main reasons for which the child will feel uncomfortable in an educational institution:
- insufficient pre-school preparation;
- lack of behavioral control skills in the child;
- inability to pace at school.
All three of them boil down to the fact that school maladjustment is a common phenomenon among first-graders, but sometimes it also manifests itself in older children, for example, in adolescence due to personality restructuring or simply when moving to a new school. In this case, disadaptation from the social develops into psychosocial.
Consequences of school maladjustment
Among the manifestations of school maladjustment are the following:
- comprehensive failure in subjects;
- strolling classes for disrespectful reasons;
- disregard for rules and school rules;
- disrespect for classmates and teachers, conflicts;
- isolation, unwillingness to make contact.
Psychosocial disadaptation - the problem of the Internet generation
Consider school maladjustment from the point of view of the school age period, and not the school period in principle. This maladjustment manifests itself in the form of conflicts with peers and teachers, sometimes - immoral behavior that violates the rules of conduct in an educational institution or in society as a whole.
Just over half a century ago, among the reasons for this type of unsuitability, there was no such as the Internet. Now he is the main reason.
Hikkikomori (hikki, hikkovat, from Japanese. "Break away, be sharpened") - a modern term to describe the disorder of social adaptation in young people. It is treated as a complete avoidance of any contact with society.
In Japan, the definition of "hikkikomori" is a disease, but at the same time in social circles it can even be used as an insult. Briefly, you can designate that being a Hikka is bad. But this is the case in the East. In the countries of the post-Soviet space (including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, etc.), with the spread of the phenomenon of social networks, the image of Hikkikomori was elevated to a cult. This also includes the popularization of imaginary misanthropy and / or nihilism.
This has led to an increase in the level of psychosocial maladjustment among adolescents. The Internet generation, experiencing puberty, taking the example of “Hickoff” and imitating it, runs the risk of actually undermining mental health and starting to show pathogenic disadaptation. This is the essence of the problem of open access to information. The task of the parents is to teach the child from an early age to filter the knowledge gained and to separate the useful and the harmful in order to prevent undue influence from the latter.
Factors of psychosocial maladjustment
Although the Internet factor is considered to be the basis of psychosocial maladjustment in the modern world, it is not the only one.
The remaining causes of maladjustment:
- Emotional disorders in adolescent school students. This is a personal problem, manifested in aggressive behaviour, or, on the contrary, in depression, lethargy and apathy. Briefly, this situation can be described by the expression "from one extreme to another".
- Violation of emotional self-regulation. This means that Teens are often unable to control themselves, which leads to numerous conflicts and clashes. The next step after that is maladjustment of the adolescents.
- The lack of understanding in the family. Constant tension in the family circle affects the teenager is not the best way, and also that this causes the previous two, family conflicts – not the best example for your child how to behave in society.
The last factor affects the perennial fathers-children problem; This once again proves that parents are responsible for preventing problems of social and psycho-social adaptation.
Classification. Subspecies of psychosocial maladjustment
Depending on the causes and factors, it is conditionally possible to make the following classification of psychosocial disadaptation:
- Social household. A person may not be satisfied with the new conditions of life.
- Legal. A person is not satisfied with his place in the social hierarchy and / or in society in general.
- Situational role-playing. Short-term deadaptation associated with inappropriate social role in a certain situation.
- Socio-cultural. The inability to accept the mentality and culture of the surrounding society. Often manifests itself when moving to another city/country.
Socio-psychological maladjustment, or inability to personal relationships
Disadaptation in a pair is a very interesting and poorly understood concept. Poorly studied in the sense of just the classification, since the problems of maladaptation often worry parents towards their children and are almost always ignored in relation to themselves.
Nevertheless, although rarely, this situation may arise, because for this, the response of personal disadaptation is the generalized term of fitness disorders, which is perfectly suitable for use here.
Disharmony in the pair - one of the reasons for separation and divorce. It includes the incompatibility of characters and views on life, lack of mutual feelings, respect and understanding. As a result, conflicts arise, selfish attitude, cruelty, rudeness. Relationships become “sick,” especially if, because of the habit, none of the couples are going to retreat.
Psychologists have also noticed that in large families such exclusion is rarely seen, but her cases become more frequent, if the couple lives together with their parents or other relatives.
Pathogenic maladjustment: when the disease prevents to adapt in society
This species, as already indicated above, occurs in nervous and mental disorders. The manifestation of maladjustment due to illness sometimes becomes chronic, amenable only to temporary relief.
For example, oligophrenia is distinguished by the absence of psychopathic inclinations and dispositions towards crimes, but the mental retardation of such a patient undoubtedly interferes with his social fitness. That is why this category of children is rendered by psychologists into a separate program, according to which prevention of maladaptation should be carried out:
- Diagnosis of the disease before its complete progression.
- Curriculum compliance with the capabilities of the child.
- The focus of the work program is to bring work skills to automatism.
- Social learning.
- Pedagogical organization of the system of collective relations and of the relations of mentally retarded children in the course of any of their activities.
Problems of education "uncomfortable" students
Among exceptional children, gifted children also occupy a special level. The problem in educating these guys is that talent and a sharp mind are not a disease, so they are not looking for a special approach to them. Often, teachers only aggravate the situation, provoking conflicts in the team and aggravating the relationship between the "smart people" and their peers.
Preventing maladjustment of children who are ahead of the rest in intellectual and spiritual development consists in proper family and school education, aimed not only at developing existing abilities, but also such character traits as ethics, politeness and humanity. They, or rather their absence, are responsible for the possible “conceit” and selfishness of the little “geniuses”.
Autism. Disadaptation of autistic children
Autism is a violation of social development, which is characterized by the desire to escape "into itself" from the world. This disease has no beginning and no end, it is a life sentence. Patients with autism can have both developed intellectual abilities, and, conversely, a small degree of developmental retardation. An early sign of autism is the child’s inability to accept and understand other people, to “read” information from them. A characteristic symptom is the avoidance of the "eye to eye" look.
In order to help an autistic child adapt in the world, parents need to be patient and tolerant, because they often have to face misunderstanding and aggression from the outside world. It is important to understand that their young son / daughter is even harder, and he / she needs help and care.
Scientists suggest that social maladjustment of autistic children arises due to disruption of the left hemisphere of the brain, which is responsible for the emotional perception of the individual.
There are basic rules for how to communicate with an autistic child:
- Do not make high demands.
- Take it for what it is. In any circumstances.
- Patience in its training. It is vain to expect quick results, you need to enjoy the small victories as well.
- Do not condemn or blame the child for his illness. Actually, no one is to blame.
- To give the child a good example. Not having the social skills he will try to repeat their parents, and therefore you should choose carefully the social circle.
- To accept the fact that something will have to sacrifice.
- Do not hide the child from society, but do not torment him with it.
- To devote more time to his upbringing and formation of personality, not intellectual learning. Although, of course, both sides are important.
- Love him, no matter what.
Inability to society due to nervous and mental personality disorders
Among the most common personality disorders, one of the symptoms of which is maladjustment, are the following:
- OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder). Described as an obsession, sometimes even contrary to the moral principles of the patient and therefore hinder the growth of his personality and, consequently, of socialization. OCD patients are prone to excessive neatness and systematization. In advanced cases, the patient is able to "cleanse" your body to the bone. Cure OCD do psychiatrists, psychological indications for it.
- Schizophrenia. Another personality disorder in which the patient is not able to control himself, leading to his inability to interact in normal society.
- Bipolar personality disorder. Previously been associated with manic-depressive psychosis. The man with the BBL occasionally experiencing either anxiety mixed with depression, or agitation and the rise of energy due to which exhibits excited behavior. It's also harder for him to adapt in society.
Deviant and delinquent behavior as a form of manifestation of maladjustment
Deviant is called the behavior that deviates from the norm, is contrary to the norms or completely denies them. The manifestation of deviant behavior in psychology is called the “act”.
The act is aimed at:
- Check your own strengths, abilities, skills.
- Test methods to achieve certain goals. Thus, aggression, which can be used to achieve the desired, if successful, the result will be repeated again and again. As a shining example are the tantrums, tears and tantrums.
Deviation does not always mean bad deeds. The positive phenomenon of deviation is the manifestation of oneself in a creative way, the revelation of one’s character.
Disadaptation is characterized by negative deviation. It includes bad habits, unacceptable actions or inaction, lies, rudeness, etc.
The next stage of the deviation is a delectable behavior.
Delicate behavior is a protest, a deliberate choice of a path against the system of established norms. It is aimed at the destruction and complete destruction of established traditions and rules.
The actions connected with the delinquent behavior are often very cruel, antisocial, even criminal offenses.
Professional adaptation and disadaptation
Finally, it is important to consider maladjustment at an already mature age, associated with the collision of the individual with the team, rather than a specific incompatible character.
For the most part, occupational stress is responsible for the violation of adaptation in the working team.
In turn, his (stress) can cause the following points:
- Unacceptable working hours. Even paid overtime hours not able to restore human health of the nervous system.
- Competition. Healthy competition gives motivation, unhealthy – damage to this most health, causes aggression, depression, insomnia, reduces the efficiency.
- Very fast promotion. No matter how nice the person increase, the constant change of the situation, social roles, responsibilities, rarely goes in his favor.
- Negative interpersonal relationships with the administration. Not even worth to explain how to affect the workflow constant voltage.
- The conflict between work and personal life. When a person has to make a choice between the spheres of life, it has a negative impact on each of them.
- Unstable job situation. In small doses it allows you to keep superiors subordinates "on a short leash". However, after some time it begins to affect relations in the team. Ongoing mistrust impairs the health and development of the entire organization.
Also interesting is the concept of "re-adapt ourselves" and "rehabilitation", both characterized by the reconstruction due to extreme working conditions. Preadaptation aimed at changing themselves and their actions more suitable in given conditions. Integration helps a person to return to his normal rhythm of life.
In a situation of professional maladjustment, it is recommended to listen to the popular definition of rest - changing the type of activity. Active pastime in the air, creative self-realization in art or needlework - all this allows the person to switch, and the nervous system - to make a kind of reboot. In acute forms of impairment of working adaptation, prolonged rest should be combined with psychological counseling.
Disadaptation is often perceived as a problem that does not require attention. But she demands it, and at any age: from the smallest in kindergarten to adults at work and in personal relationships. The sooner you begin to prevent maladaptation, the easier it will be to avoid similar problems in the future. Disadaptation correction is carried out with the help of work on oneself and sincere mutual assistance of others.