Features of the genre
The beginning of the growing up of the hero
Alyosha Peshkov was brought up in a family based on mutual respect and love. Father Maximus was engaged in the construction of the triumphal gates, which were erected for the arrival of the tsar. Mother Varvara was expecting the birth of her second child. Everything changed when my father died of cholera. He was buried on a rainy day, and Alyosha always remembered the frogs sitting in the pit - they were buried along with the coffin. The boy looked at them and held back tears. Never cry - his parents accustomed to it. And the mother of grief began premature birth. So the first chapter of the work of Gorky begins unhappily.
Then there was a long journey along the Volga from Astrakhan to Nizhny Novgorod. The newborn died on the way, and his mother could not calm down from the grief that had fallen. Alyosha was engaged in a grandmother who arrived at a difficult time for her family, Akulina Ivanovna. She also took her daughter and grandson to Novgorod, from which Barbara once left against her father's will. It was to my grandmother that Gorky devoted the best pages of the story. She was a kind, sympathetic person, always ready to help. This was immediately noticed by the sailors on the ship, who found the hero when he got lost on one of the marinas. Despite the fullness and age, Akulina Ivanovna moved quickly and dexterously, resembling a cat. She often told amazing stories that attracted the attention of others. And it seemed to Alyosha that she was all shining from the inside. It is the grandmother in the future will be for the boy a source of good and the main support, will help to bear forthcoming adversity. And with the arrival in Nizhny in the life of the hero there will be a lot, about which Maxim Gorky will write in his novel.
The product "Childhood" continues acquaintance with the new heroes. On the shore of the guests met a large family of Kashirins, the main one in which was Vasily Vasilyevich. Small and dry, his grandfather did not like Alyosha at once, and time will pass before he looks at him in a new way and tries to understand him as a man.
In the big house of the Kashirins, besides their grandfather and grandmother, two more of their sons and their families lived. Alyosha, who used to grow up in quite different surroundings, it was difficult to get used to the constant hostility and malice that reigned between relatives. Their main reason was the desire of Mikhail and Yakov to divide the property faster, which the grandfather did not want to do. With the arrival of Barbara, the situation became even more tense, as she also had a share in the father's inheritance. In their desire to annoy each other, adults knew no boundaries, and their confrontation extended to children.
Another boy witnessed a terrible procedure for him - every Saturday they blew children. Not escaped this fate and the hero. On the advice of one of his brothers, he decided to paint a festive tablecloth to bring joy to his grandmother. As a result, I was on the bench under the bastards of my grandfather. From punishment, neither Akulina Ivanovna nor her mother could save her. This is one of the first bitter events in the new life of the hero, with which Maxim Gorky introduces the novel. Alyosha's childhood will be remembered also thanks to the Gypsy girl, who during the flogging turned his hands, trying the main force of blows to take over.
Ivan in the Kashirins family was a foundling. Grandmother told her grandson that she gave birth to eighteen children, of whom only three survived. The best, in her opinion, God took to him, and in return sent the Gypsy. The story "Childhood" Gorky continues the story of his bitter fate.
Ivan was found at the gate, and my grandmother took him to be brought up. Unlike his own sons, he grew up kind and caring. He also showed himself to be a good worker, which was another reason for the hostility between Mikhail and Yakov: each of them dreamed of taking the Gypsy back to him in the future. Often for fun, Ivan arranged amusements with cockroaches or mice, showed tricks with cards. Alyosha remembered evenings when Grandfather and Mikhail left the house. At that time, everyone was gathering in the kitchen. Jacob tuned the guitar, and after the songs the gay dance of the Gypsy began. Then he was joined by Akulina Ivanovna, who seemed to return at that moment in her youth: she was so young and good-looking during the dance.
Grandmother prophesied to the youth a bad future and was afraid for him. The fact is that the Gipsies went to grocery stores every Friday and to steal money and make their grandfather happy. Akulina Ivanovna thought that one day he would be caught and killed. Her fears came true, but in part: Gypsy was killed not by strangers, but by Mikhail and Jacob. The last one to death killed his wife, and as a remorse gave a vow to put on her grave oak cross. He was carried three together, and under the coma set Ivan. On the way, he stumbled, and he was crushed by a cross, which the brothers at that moment released, - says Maxim Gorky.
"Childhood" in the reduction introduces only the main points from the life of the protagonist, but we can not fail to mention that the Gypsies, whose painful death was also deposited in the boy's mind, along with his grandmother became for him a source of light and kindness and helped to survive the first tests in a new life .
Alyosha liked to observe how Akulina Ivanovna prayed in the evenings. Before the icons, she talked about everything that happened during the day, and asked for everyone. And the boy liked stories about what he, God. At these moments my grandmother was young, and her eyes radiated a special, warm light. Sometimes Akulina Ivanovna was seen devils, but they did not frighten her. Fear at the grandmother caused only cockroaches, and often at night she woke up Alesha and asked to kill them. But the image of the grandmother in the scene of the fire, which continues (it is described in detail by Maxim Gorky) "Childhood" is especially bright.
My grandmother prayed when my grandfather ran in with a shout: "We are burning!" The workshop was burning, and Akulina Ivanovna rushed into the flames to prevent an explosion. Brought a bottle and began to give orders, what to do next. I calmed down the horse, which my grandfather was frightened of. And then she took birth with her burned hands at her aunt Natalya. And only when it was over (Mikhail's wife all the same died), Alyosha heard grandmother's groans caused by severe burns. All this leads to the thought: only a broad soul man can so fearlessly fight with a fire, and then, tormented by pain, find words of comfort for others. This is exactly what Akulina Ivanovna was, who played a decisive role in Alyosha's life, as Maxim Gorky repeatedly points out. "Childhood" (a characteristic of the grandmother confirms this) is a work about how spiritual generosity and love can resist malice and hatred, without letting the germs of good and good, originally inherent in the character of man, die.
The Kashirins are still divided. Alyosha and his grandparents moved to a stone house with a garden. Rooms, except one, handed over. She left for herself and grandfather's guests. Akulina Ivanovna and her grandson were housed in the attic. Grandmother was again at the center of all events: the tenants constantly turned to her for advice, and for each she found a kind word. The grandson was always next to her, as if grown. Sometimes the mother appeared, but she quickly disappeared, leaving no even memories of herself.
Once my grandmother told Alyosha about her life. She was born from a maimed lace girl who threw herself out of the window when the master frightened her. Together they walked the world until they settled in Balakhna. Akulina learned how to weave lace, and then she was looked out by her grandfather. He was famous at that time. And he chose a beggar as his wife, he decided that he would be submissive all his life.
And grandfather decided to teach Alyosha letters. Seeing the cleverness of his grandson, he began to cut it less often and looked at him more closely, sometimes telling stories from his own life. This was the way Maxim Gorky spent his childhood.
And again feud
The misfortunes of the Kashirins did not end. Somehow Yakov came running and said that Mikhail was going to kill his grandfather. Similar scenes began to be repeated often. Again, the main burden fell on the grandmother. One evening she thrust her hand out the window, hoping to bring her son to his senses, and Mikhail broke it with a stake. Watching all this, Alyosha began to think more and more about his mother. The fact that she refused to live in such a family, markedly uplifted her in the eyes of his son. And he represented Varvara or in the camp of robbers, or in the image of the prince-lady, Engalycheva, whom grandmother told him about. And sometimes the boy's breast seemed to be filled with lead, and it became stuffy and tight in this room resembling a coffin. Bitter thoughts and feelings evoked in the hero, as Maxim Gorky shows, childhood. Analysis of them leaves the same weight on the reader's soul.
There is in the work of another hero, with whom Alyosha met immediately after his arrival in Novgorod. This is Grigory Ivanovich, a master who worked for his grandfather. He was old and blind, and the boys, as well as his uncles, often mocked him. For example, they could put a red-hot fox on their hands. When the Kashirins shared their information and the grandfather moved to Field Street, the masters were simply kicked out into the street. It was painfully embarrassing: to see how Gregory was trying, because Alyosha avoided meeting him and whenever he appeared he was hiding, - Maxim Gorky recalls. "Childhood", whose characters are people of different social layers, shows how the boy gradually became discontent with the life he saw. And the merit of the writer is that he made it clear: not always a person swims with the flow. Many find strength in themselves to resist evil, thereby gradually changing the world for the better.
As for Grigory, my grandmother often called him to her and tried at least to somehow belittle the misfortunes that fell to the lot of the one who gave her life to her family. Once she told Alyosha that God would punish them for this man. Years later, when Akulina Ivanovna was no more, his grandfather himself went to beg, repeating the fate of his master.
And again Vasily Vasilevich changed his place of residence, "Gorky continues the story" Childhood ". On Kanatnaya Street, where the Kashirins now settled, fate brought Alesha with one more amazing person. A good Deed - so nicknamed the tenant for the words he invariably used in the speech - was considered a freeloader and he always spent in his room some experiments, which caused his grandfather's displeasure. One evening, everything was traditionally gathered at my grandmother's, and she started a story about Ivan the Warrior. This story produced an extraordinary impression on the Good Case. Suddenly he jumped up and shouted that it must be written down. And later he gave advice to Alyosha: to learn by all means. And more - write down everything that Akulina Ivanovna tells. With this, perhaps, the writer's love of literature began.
But soon the Good Deed left the house, and Gorky wrote about this in the story: thus ended the friendship with the first (best) man from "an endless series of strangers in his native ... country."
Meeting with mother
Varvara appeared in the house of the Kashirins unexpectedly. Alyosha immediately noticed that she had changed, but she still did not look like her brothers and father. And again he thought: he would not live here long. Mother began to teach her son to read and even decided to take up his education. But for a time spent away from each other, they stopped understanding each other. The boy was oppressed by the constant quarrels between his grandfather and his mother, especially since Varvara was not going to change to please anyone. And yet she broke Kashirin. After refusing to marry an old watchmaker, who was looked after by his grandfather, Varvara practically became the mistress of the house, continues Maxim Gorky's Childhood. The chapters devoted to the hero's mother are introduced to how she opposed the will of her father for a completely different from her family, Maxim. How young came to bow to the old man-Kashirin, but refused to live in his house, which caused the old man's new wrath. As the husband of Mikhail and Jacob, who dreamed of seizing her share in the inheritance, disliked her. As, at last, Peshkovs have left for Astrakhan where have begun to live amicably and happily.
And although her mother always aroused warm feelings in Alyosha, she never became a man for her son, who helped him to overcome the first troubles of life, to stand before the blows of fate.
"Leading abominations of life"
After the incident with his stepfather, Alyosha was back with his grandfather. Vasily Vasilievich insisted that they prepare meals with the grandmother in turns, and each with his own money. At the same time he always saved. The hero had to earn it all: after school he went to collect rags and sold it cheaply. Earned gave to his grandmother and once he saw how she cried over his heels.
The school had a tight time. Here Alyosha was called a rag-taker, and no one wanted to sit with him. But he still passed the exams in the third grade, for which he received as a reward a laudatory leaf and several books. The last boy was taken to the shop when Akulina Ivanovna went to bed and nothing to live on.
Another memorable event in the life of the hero of the story "Childhood" Maxim Gorky - the death of his mother. Varvara returned to Kashirin quite sick, dried up and soon died of consumption. A few days after her funeral, the grandfather sent Alexei "into the people", so that he would earn his own bread. From that moment childhood ends and the second novel of Gorky's autobiographical trilogy begins.
The ability to spiritual self-development in conditions of tragic reality is, perhaps, the main thing that Maxim Gorky wants to draw attention to. Childhood (the theme of the work, stated in the title, it emphasizes) - the main time in a person's life. The child usually remembers what impressed him. And it is good that during this period Alyosha witnessed not only inhumanity and cruelty, but also got acquainted with people who are unlimitedly kind and open to others. This helped him to resist "leaden abominations" and grow up a bright man and not reconciling with evil, which can become an example for everyone else.