Forest and woodworking industry – one of the oldest sectors of the economy of the Russian Federation. They have a relatively complex structure. The forest and timber industry is an industrial complex associated with the harvesting and processing of timber.
Conventionally, the sphere of forest industry can be divided into four categories. These include, in particular, include the chemical industry – the production of turpentine, coal. The complex includes a pulp and paper and woodworking industry. The first is the chemical processing of timber, manufacture of paper, cardboard and other things. The woodworking industry includes a range of different activities. They are associated with mechanical and chemical-mechanical processing. The most common industry-woodworking industry – production of sawn timber, production of plates and furniture. The fourth group includes the procurement of raw materials.
Woodworking industry in Russia: specialization
As was said above, this complex includes measures for mechanical and chemical-mechanical processing of the material. There are various professions of the wood industry. For example, the mechanical processing is carried out by operators of different specializations. These include, in particular:
- Raspasovschika. They serve band and circular sawing machines, monitor their work, take and serve workpiece. After working raspasovschika hold cleaning equipment.
- Machinists machines trimming cutting boards in the longitudinal direction on the elements of different widths.
- Masters of drilling equipment make holes in the details.
- Turners are turning a variety of elements out of the workpiece.
- Master milling machines-copying equipment are produced on copiers parts with complex profile.
- Workers tenoning machines cut out the eyes and spikes.
- Masters of planing equipment serve the thickness and planer units. They plan the edges of boards and bars, process the parts in a size by the thickness, fuzzy straight edges.
Machine operators need to know the technology, structure and configuration of the machine and Standards, to be able to read blueprints. Regulation, adjustment and repair of equipment is carried out by technicians. On advanced enterprise working machines semi-automatic and automatic machines. They processing is carried out without the participation of the people. Several machines are connected in a process line. Of the workpiece on such conveyors are accepted and served from machine to machine special loading and unloading automatic mechanisms. In these lines the workers are the operators of the equipment. Quite common carpentry specialization: furniture, panaromic, grinder, collector and others.
Timber industry of Russia is an ancient one. As the industrial complex was formed in the early 18th century. The highest intensity in the development of the woodworking industry has reached to the middle of the 19th century. Along with the cut of the material appeared factory manufacture of furniture, match sticks and plywood. So from 1900 to 1913 the domestic production of sawn timber has increased from 7.7 to 14.2 million cubic meters. However, despite this growth, the timber industry was technically at a relatively low level, lagging behind some developed countries, particularly in the field of manufacturing sophisticated products. Three quarters of the value of products in the pre-revolutionary period was lumber. In 1914-1918, before the World was formed relatively large and well-equipped wood industry. This, in particular, factories in Onega, Arkhangelsk.
Development of the wood industry in the USSR
In the period of the prewar five-year plans from 1929 and 1940, progress was directly related to the growth in the construction, furniture, machinery and other production and the production of consumer goods. Woodworking industry, which began to emerge almost everywhere, began to develop actively. So, was built specialized plants for the production of window frames and doors. This, in particular, Lopatinsky, Bobruisk, Olshanski and other plants. Formed finishing and match factories, construction plants with automated production. Specialized construction yards (utility plants) were established at major venues.
The global crisis of 2008-2009
He had a negative impact on the Russian economy. This is confirmed by statistical calculations, in accordance with which production in the various areas suffered significant losses. In a difficult situation and the woodworking industry. Many factories and mills, there was a wave of cuts thousands of employees were left without work. In connection with the crisis in European countries has significantly decreased export of timber. As a result, a large number of warehouses were overloaded with unclaimed goods. In the wood industry of the Russian Federation decreased production volumes.
The positive side of the crisis
However, despite the decline, the production of material for magazines and books, cardboard, plates not only has not decreased, but increased. In demand and the sector engaged in the manufacture of furniture. These products regularly come from hotels, restaurants, offices and other businesses. It should be said that the crisis had not only negative but also positive impact. In particular, during this period of increased competition, which increased product quality. In addition, the level of service has been given much more attention. This has benefited not only consumers but also manufacturers. Due to the fact that wood processing industry is quite dependent on the state, which remains the world market, the recovery it takes a lot of time.
Today is the active development of the timber industry. This area is one of the highest levels in the state's economy. This is due to the fact that at all times its existence, this sector has produced a large number of products, which brought a large income. The share of Russia accounts for a quarter of all forest reserves in the world. Encourage the processing of raw materials at the state level will contribute to accelerating progress in this sector. The task today is to increase the economic potential. Special attention is paid to introduction of innovative technologies. Planned growth and improvement of the production process on Selenginsky tskk. Equally important is the use of the latest equipment, which allows the use of complex raw materials and minimize costs. Planned adjustments to the structure of the sector. Before the mills and factories tasked with more rapid development.
Today the quality of wood products has improved significantly. This contributed to the improvement of the means and methods of processing. Along with this decreased the cost of the final product. Equally important is the changing geography of the industry. Before logging in the majority of studied developed countries, and today as suppliers are the States that have not yet reached this level, although not produce finished products on their own.
Problems of the sector
In addition, the timber industry faced the following difficulties:
- The uncontrolled rising cost of fuel.
- Problems of logistics and transport. This includes the commercialization of enterprises that serve the forestry and woodworking industries, which entailed an increase in the final price for products.
- The problems of regulation of lease relations, as well as the organization of auctions for the right to lease green space in terms of legislative framework.
- Absence of a competent methodology for selection of investment projects in the timber industry sector.
- Inconsistency with foreign countries on the regulatory framework that regulates foreign economic relations.