They say that the doctor should be able to heal even with the word: after talking with a real doctor, the patient becomes better. Unfortunately, not all experts have such talent. Sometimes reckless replicas of doctors can do more harm than a misdiagnosis. However, there is a section of ethics called “deontology”. It is deontology that regulates the norms of the relationship between the medical staff and the patient.
What is deontology
Deontology is a term derived from the Greek word Deontos, which is translated as “necessary.” It covers a fairly wide range of issues relating to the relationship between the medical staff and the patient. In particular, it is believed that the physician should make all his efforts to benefit the patient, and refuse any action that could harm the sick person. Deontology regulates the specifics of communication not only with the patient, but also with colleagues, nurses and relatives of the patient.
History of deontology
The term “medical ethics” was suggested by the lawyer from the UK Jeremiah Bentham in the 19th century. However, the main principles of this important section of ethics appeared at the dawn of the emergence of medical science. For example, in the ancient Indian medical treatises it was recommended to take on the healing of patients who could be healed: from hopeless patients should be abandoned. The healer should not continue to work with a patient who was unable to regain health during the year.
The problem of interaction between the doctor and the patient was raised in the 13th century: the doctor Abu-al-Faraj recommended the healer and the patient to cooperate in order to overcome the disease. He wrote that if a patient “clings” to his illness, the doctor will be forced to resist two opponents at once. If the doctor and the patient work together, the disease will definitely lose. Thus, deontology is not just a set of rules, but one of the keys to successful therapy.
Not to mention Hippocrates. His sayings “The doctor-philosopher is like God”, “Do no harm” and “Where love for people and love for his art” became the basic principles of medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath unchanged existed for several centuries: it was only in 1967 at the International Congress of Ethics, held in Paris, that the oath was supplemented with the phrase: "I swear to learn all my life."
Main principles of medical ethics
Deontology is a section of ethics that includes the basic basic principles: mercy, autonomy, justice and completeness of assistance.
The principle of mercy implies a sensitive attitude to the needs of the patient. Every act of a doctor or nurse should be good, not harm.
The principle of autonomy is the need to respect the personality of the patient. This includes the rule of anonymity and confidentiality, informing about future medical intervention, as well as providing the patient with the opportunity to decide their own destiny.
The principle of justice involves the provision of medical care to all in need, regardless of their profession, social status and other circumstances.
Finally, the principle of completeness of care is that each patient should be provided with the necessary assistance in full.
Doctor and patient communication
Deontology in medicine is a set of rules that regulate the rules of relations between the patient and the doctor. The tactics of the doctor’s attitude towards the patient should be individualized. It depends on the severity of the patient’s illness, its cultural level, education, etc. Some patients require fairly mild treatment, while others are more likely to be strict and even have a team style. At the same time, the doctor should remember that it is important for any person to feel the personal interest of medical personnel in successful treatment.
In all cases, the physician must inform the patient of the severity of his condition and potential complications. The exception is made by patients in whom oncological diseases are found: it is necessary to note any, even the most insignificant changes for the better. The need to inform the patient about the presence of cancer is debatable. On the one hand, any person has the right to know his diagnosis. On the other hand, information about the presence of cancer may adversely affect the prognosis, because many people are confident that oncology is not treatable.
Deontology in medicine is very important: if the doctor and medical staff do not comply with ethical principles in dealing with patients, the state of the latter may deteriorate. There is a so-called iatrogenic, that is, disorders that arise as a result of incorrect behavior of medical staff. After all, the condition of a sick person is already quite difficult: he sensitively listens to all the words of the doctor, and any careless statement can lead to unpredictable consequences.
Usually iatrogenic manifested as neurotic reactions or phobias (for example, cancer phobia). In venting patients, vegetative dysfunctions may occur (arrhythmias, changes in pressure, vomiting, disorders of the chair, etc.). Deontology is a science that helps prevent the development of iatrogenic or reduce their appearance to a minimum.
Medical ethics and deontology are very important: a benevolent, individualized approach to the patient, an ethical attitude on the part of the medical staff, and the confidence of the doctor in the success of the treatment give the patient hope for recovery.