They say that a doctor should be able to heal even with a word: after talking with a real doctor, the patient becomes better. Unfortunately, not all specialists have such a talent. Sometimes reckless replicas of doctors can do more harm than wrongly diagnosed. However, there is a section of ethics called "deontology". It is deontology that regulates the norms of relations between the medical staff and the patient.
What is deontology
Deontology is a term derived from the Greek word Deontos, which translates as "necessary." It covers a wide range of issues related to the relationship between the medical staff and the patient. In particular, it is considered that the doctor should apply all his efforts to bring the patient benefits, and to refuse any actions that could harm the sick person. Deontology regulates the specifics of communication not only with the patient, but also with colleagues, junior medical personnel and relatives of the patient.
History of deontology
The term "medical deontology" was offered by a British lawyer, Jeremiah Bentham, in the 19th century. However, the main principles of this important section of ethics appeared at the dawn of the emergence of medical science. For example, in the ancient Indian medical treatises, it was recommended to undertake the cure of patients who can be healed: from hopeless patients it was necessary to refuse. The healer did not have to continue to work with a patient who could not return health within a year.
The problem of interaction between the doctor and the patient was raised in the XIII century: the doctor Abu al-Faraj recommended that the healer and the patient cooperate in order to defeat the disease. He wrote that if the patient "keeps" for his illness, the doctor will have to resist at once to two opponents. If the doctor and the patient work together, the disease will necessarily lose. Thus, deontology is not just a set of rules, but one of the keys to successful therapy.
It is impossible not to mention Hippocrates. His sayings "The doctor-philosopher is similar to God", "Do no harm" and "Where love to people, and love of one's art" became the basic principles of medical ethics. The Hippocratic oath remained unchanged for several centuries: it was only in 1967 at the International deontological congress, held in Paris, that the oath was supplemented with the phrase: "I swear to learn all my life."
Main principles of medical ethics
Deontology is a section of ethics that includes the basic principles: charity, autonomy, fairness and completeness of care.
The principle of charity implies a sensitive attitude to the needs of the patient. Every action of a doctor or nurse should bring good, not harm.
The principle of autonomy is the need to respect the personality of the patient. This includes the rule of anonymity and confidentiality, informing about future medical intervention, as well as giving the patient the opportunity to decide his or her own fate.
The principle of justice implies the provision of medical care to all those in need, regardless of their profession, social status or other circumstances.
Finally, the principle of completeness of care lies in the fact that every patient must be provided with the necessary assistance in full.
Communication between doctor and patient
Deontology in medicine is a set of rules that regulate the rules of the relationship between a patient and a doctor. The tactic of the attitude of the doctor to the patient should be individualized. It depends on the severity of the patient's illness, its cultural level, education, etc. Some patients require a fairly gentle treatment, while others are more suited to strictness and even team style. In this case, the doctor should remember that it is important for any person to feel the personal interest of medical personnel in successful treatment.
In all cases, the doctor should inform the patient of the severity of his condition and potential complications. The only exception is patients who have cancer: they should note any, even the smallest, changes for the better. The need to inform the patient about the presence of oncological disease is debatable. On the one hand, anyone has the right to know their diagnosis. On the other hand, information about the presence of cancer can adversely affect the prognosis, because many people are sure that oncology does not respond to treatment.
Deontology in medicine is very important: if the doctor and medical personnel do not follow ethical principles in dealing with patients, then the condition of the latter can worsen. There is a so-called iatrogenia, that is, a disorder that occurs as a result of incorrect behavior of medical staff. After all, the condition of a sick person is already quite heavy: he listens attentively to all the doctor's words, and any careless statement can lead to unpredictable consequences.
Usually, iatrogenia manifests as neurotic reactions or phobias (eg, carcinophobia). Patients may have vegetative dysfunctions (arrhythmias, pressure changes, vomiting, stool disorders, etc.). Deontology is a science that prevents the development of iatrogenic or reduces their occurrence to a minimum.
Medical ethics and deontology are very important: a friendly individualized approach to the patient, an ethical attitude on the part of medical personnel and the doctor's confidence in the success of the treatment give the patient hope for recovery.