There are many conditions that are dangerous for human life. One of them is severe dehydration. It can lead to various diseases, ranging from ordinary food poisoning and ending with especially dangerous infections. The fastest dehydration develops in young children, so they need more careful observation and care. Assistance for this condition depends on the stage of the process. In mild forms it is possible to be treated independently, with a severe degree it is necessary to be hospitalized in the intensive care unit.
Dehydration is what?
Everyone knows that water is a part of the human body. The fluid is contained in all the cells of our body. Therefore, in order for the organism to function normally, it constantly needs water. The liquid is released through physiological dispensations, sweat, tears, etc. Then it is replenished again due to the fact that we drink and eat food. Thus, the body must constantly maintain a fluid balance. Unfortunately, with some diseases a person loses more water than consumes. This state is called "dehydration". This term includes the negative particle "de" and the word "hydro", meaning "water". It has been known in medicine since ancient times and is a companion of various pathologies. In other words, dehydration is dehydration of the body. Loss of fluid is considered very dangerous to health and can lead to death. Help in this condition can only be an expert, so at the first sign of urgent need to see a doctor.
Causes of dehydration
Dehydration of the body does not develop without a cause. It leads to various pathological conditions in which fluid loss occurs. Most often a large amount of water leaves the body with prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. Loss of blood during injuries also leads to dehydration. The main cause of dehydration is intestinal infections. The most common of these are dysentery and salmonellosis. In addition to them, the following can lead to dehydration: E. coli, staphylococci, clostridia, botulinum toxin, etc. All these bacteria enter the human body with food that has been eaten and treated poorly. Especially dangerous infections (cholera, anthrax) lead to deadly dehydration of the body. Fortunately, at the present time these diseases do not occur. Since dehydration is a loss of fluid, it also develops when blood exits the body. In some cases, an easy degree of dehydration can occur during childbirth, surgical interventions, heavy menstruation. A severe stage develops with hemorrhagic shock - a large blood loss that occurs with severe injuries.
How many degrees of dehydration?
In the medical literature, 4 degrees of dehydration are described.
The first - the easiest stage - is characterized by a loose stool or vomiting with a frequency of 2 to 5 times a day. The patient may experience weakness and dry mouth.
At the second degree of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting are observed up to 10 times a day. At this stage, the skin begins to turn pale and acquire a cyanotic shade, it becomes dry to the touch and flabby.
The third degree of dehydration is characterized by indomitable loss of fluid, increased heart rate, lowered blood pressure, diuresis and hypothermia. In this case, the appearance of convulsions, hoarseness of voice.
At the last stage of dehydration, facial features become pointed, black circles appear around the eyes. The body loses more than 10% of the fluid, which is critical.
Assistance with dehydration
If you experience symptoms such as repeated vomiting or diarrhea, you should consult your doctor. Especially fast these conditions lead to dehydration in children! The help with dehydration depends on its degree. With a light form, the replacement of the lost fluid is done orally with the "Regidron" solution. If the second degree of dehydration develops, then physiological saline is injected intravenously. At the third and fourth stage, hospitalization in intensive care is required. In these cases it is necessary to introduce colloidal and crystalloid solutions, and also to fill the lack of electrolytes (potassium, chlorine, etc.). To assess the degree of dehydration, it is possible by hemodynamic parameters of the patient (heart rate, blood pressure), as well as the expansion of the skin fold on the patient's arm.