Today we are surrounded by advertising from all sides. Wherever we go, everywhere we see advertising banners, some characteristics of the product, information on how to buy a particular product or service. All these are advertising materials with which we live in a familiar life.
The basis of the advertising campaign is the definition of the target audience. What this means, we will try to describe in detail in this article. In the meantime, consider a model of how any advertising works and how marketing technology is built.
How is advertising organized?
So, we all know how to sell products and services that are involved in marketing. Put simply, the sellers are doing everything to the largest possible number of buyers found out about the product, its advantages, want to buy it and have talked about it to my friends. To achieve this goal, there is advertising.
It works as a means of alerting, informing the manufacturer about the information to the simple person who makes the purchase. And it is clear that here the target audience of advertising comes into play. It allows you to accurately determine who needs to show the material; who may be interested in the product, information about him and who generally wants to buy it. This is the main task of the person who compiles and defines the target audience, that is, the identification of people who need to see advertising and show sponsorship materials. This approach will make it possible to convey information about the goods to those who can buy it. At the same time, the advertising budget can not be spent on other representatives of the society. This is an economy that can become quite significant, even if not save the company's budget.
What is the target audience?
Thus, these words hide the simple definition of a certain number of people, a certain group that has something in common. It is due to this unifying factor (the same "general") this segment of the audience is interesting to the advertiser and marketers.
And the word "target" means, first of all, the focus on a particular group of people in terms of sales. After all, they need to offer a product or service, they will be interested in making a purchase.
Determine who your target audience is - one of the initial tasks of the person who promotes the product. It is on whether the group of interested (target) buyers is determined correctly, the further success of the campaign depends.
In marketing science, there are a lot of approaches to what the main features and characteristics should be the audience of buyers. However, the most simple and generally accessible point of view is to distinguish two features that the target audience is endowed with. The question now is, first, about the interest of people who are members of the target audience in a product or service. This is important, because it is this feature that guarantees the inclusion of certain social strata in the list of potential buyers. For example, it is an understanding that the target audience of a company selling CASCO insurance policies are car buyers or drivers.
The second feature should be called some kind of connecting element. In the situation with CASCO they can be the presence of a car and the need to insure it. This factor allows you to clearly combine a group of people belonging to the target audience.
Characteristics of persons
Anything can act as a unifying factor. The presence of a car, a house in a certain area, a child and many other things are the signs that the marketer should make a correct description of what the target audience of the product looks like. There are no restrictions in this search, the main thing is to find what will interest your buyer and make him turn to your company for the purchase of goods or services.
As such characteristics may be the presence / absence of something, the age of people (as a result, the characteristics of their behavior), occupation, the core of habits, preferences, material condition, hobbies, background, mother tongue and so on. The more accurately all these and other factors will be taken into account, the more qualitatively the types of target audience will be formed.
Identify the target audience
To find out who is interested in your product, you need to follow the simplest logical chain from product features to problems and needs that it can solve and satisfy. A striking example of this, if you sell drugs to fight obesity, your product will be interesting to full people who would like to lose excess pounds. You can find such, for example, among women aged 20-40 years who periodically visit the gym. Therefore, the target area for such advertising you can find in the women's fitness room. However, one should also remember that the person who came to the hall deliberately refused tablets in favor of a healthy way of losing weight through classes. Your task is to convince him that by combining your product and sport, he will be able to achieve a greater result.
The analysis of the target audience needs to be done even further to take into account as many points and factors as possible. This is the task of the marketer, who makes up an approximate target audience.
Calculation and verification
For each advertising campaign it is important to compile different types of target audience. This is done in order to reach as many people as possible who are potentially interested in buying goods. The more criteria are applied for the "dropout" of such buyers, the better the final target audience is obtained. At the same time, the more people enter it, the better for marketing in the long run, because "get" such potentially interested persons will be easier and cheaper.
So, given that we create several models of the target audience at once, a natural step will be to further test each of them in order to reveal the most successful and easily accessible. This will help practical testing of the target audience.
You can do this in many ways. Some companies attract agencies that conduct social surveys and selections from statistics. Others are involved in local testing of the product in a limited environment. There are a lot of ways to do this, but all of them are to find out how a particular model of the audience can be considered as a working one.
How to apply data?
Once the target audience has been established, which is more profitable to work with within the framework of this or that project, it is possible to proceed to the next stage - application in practice. This is a direct function of advertising agencies that connect one or another way of advertising in order to "reach out" to the right audience.
Let us give an example. If you have a store that is located on Street A and offers goods at low prices, your target audience will be people passing by. In order to interest them, you can hold an event on the opening of your store; or simply occupy the advertising space on the same street, focusing on the low prices and the benefits that the buyer will receive.
Example of the target audience: her age
In order not to be so unfounded, from the general theory we turn to concrete practical examples. Let's analyze the most popular parameters that determine and connect the target audience into a single whole. So, let's start with age.
To analyze, people of what age address to you most often, it is easy enough. Here we must proceed from the specifics of the goods. It is obvious that sports goods are of interest to young people, electronics - similarly; but a phone with large buttons will be more useful for older people, as well as a hearing aid.
Any thing can be confidently attributed to a particular age group in general. True, some products are universal, so they need to be properly presented in order to attract as many interested people as possible.
Example of the target audience: occupation
Another common criterion, which draws attention in the formation of a group of the target audience - is human studies. First, it is important, because they determine the material security of a potential buyer. Secondly, the occupation can sometimes serve as a link between the interest and need of man and your goods. For example, entrepreneurs may be interested in accounting services or legal assistance; drivers - a new program of buying a car or a store of inexpensive parts. To proceed follows from that is useful to the person who is engaged in this or that work. That is why, when the target audience is compiled, the big role is played by employment of the person.
Example of the target audience: interests
Another indicator is interests. This is a very strong factor, because it allows you to attach to the characteristics of the buyer some of the possible needs that can satisfy the goods. Simply put, if you know that a person likes to climb mountains, he can impose a whole range of sports equipment, as well as a subscription to the training hall; and those who like reading, you can offer participation in the club program for the purchase of certain books. Hobbies are our weakness, so when the target audience is being defined, marketers take into account a person's increased interest in his hobbies and the opportunity to "impose" him more.
Error finding audience
And, of course, working with the target audience, you can not do without mistakes. In any model of definition there are shortcomings at the expense of which a part of the society to which your product and product is not interesting at all is covered. This is the error, because of which the wrong target audience is formed. Examples of how this is done are: to advertise a school near another school in the hope that parents will see it and transfer their child to another educational institution. Yes, such a result is not excluded, but it should be understood that to entice a client, it needs something more than just informing him, and even near the school in which he already leads his child.
Errors are easiest to correct by empirical way. And to identify them, in fact, you can only practically. After all, every situation is unique. Even in the example with the school, advertising can work successfully if the parents are dissatisfied with the quality of education in the institution, where they already lead their child.
It should also be remembered that any target audience, examples of which can be called in large quantities - is a "vinaigrette" from different people. If someone is interested in your product, then surely there will be those who will act categorically against it. This should also be remembered when creating an advertising campaign. If you try to attract a buyer with more aggressive and intrusive methods, such "dissatisfied" will be even more.
In general, in order to know how to search for and determine the target audience, practical experience is needed. Let's take the usual mobile operators. This - a company with billions in turnover and years of experience, which, accounting for the target audience communications, and often resort to experimentation and actions to test certain ideas. Experts in them understand what kind of audience they need and how to influence it, but nevertheless, even with this knowledge, experiments are needed for practical proof of the idea.
Therefore, if you want to identify the target audience for your product, do it! But then check the result in practice. It may be different from what was originally intended. So, in fact, and do the major advertising agencies involved in preparing for the campaign. They also do not know what to do, but some guess what the results of this or that advertising move will lead to. And then it's up to the statistics, which will give the final answer.