Different properties and content of material goods determine what a product is. Produced to meet a variety of needs and desires, the product is exhibited in various markets, in mini-and supermarkets, in specialized stores and expensive boutiques, in other words, in various sales counters and platforms. It has a certain set of characteristics and is the object of human activity.
What is a product in the service sector? It is an intangible product in the form of actions, opportunities, advantages in meeting intangible human needs. He has no physical form and is often a reinforcement for material goods. In the modern sphere of trade, there are even three product levels that answer the question of what a product is in terms of marketing. The initial level is, in fact, the plan, where they decide what the product is for and what human needs it will satisfy, what will be beneficial for it as a consumer. In the center - the real performance, that is what happened. Here you can already evaluate the properties, quality, other characteristics. On the basis of a marketing evaluation of all signs, a product is already formed with the reinforcement of services and various benefits from its acquisition. Merchandising as a science, for which the answer to the question of what a product is fundamental, uses five systems of its qualification.
In the manufacturing industry applied the same classification system. It has developed historically and is used for organization, planning, work management trading and storage companies. The basis of her product group, combined by a variety of symptoms. The sequence of evaluation for the enterprises can be different. The main ones are food and non-food. In turn, food is divided into bakery, meat and sausage, milk, oil, fish, egg, berry fruit, liquor, nonalcoholic, confectionery, Peseiro and tobacco products. According to the method of fitness for use immediately after purchase, they are combined into grocery and gastronomic subgroups. Groceries (cereals, coffee, tea, frozen and dried vegetables and fruits, etc.) require additional processing and preparation before consumption. Food from the gastronomic department can be eaten immediately. They have high taste characteristics. These are sausages, various canned food, dairy products, confectionery and other products.
Industrial goods that make up a non-food group are divided into household chemicals, plastics, glass, ceramics, wood, various metals, rubber, electrical appliances, household appliances, electronics, building materials, sewing, textiles, knitwear, leather haberdashery, fur, and footwear. items, haberdashery, stationery and school supplies, watches and jewelry, perfumes and cosmetics, sporting goods, toys, books and printed materials. These species include many products. For various reasons, for convenience of presentation and implementation in commercial networks, they can be disaggregated or merged.
Often used in complex integration in large groups. For example, on the basis of gender create enterprises with goods for men and women; age - kids, adults, etc .; according to the method of leisure - for gardeners, fishermen, hunters, tourists and so on.
The second classification system is used in textbooks and manuals on merchandising as a software subject. Used when studying a wide range of products, their purpose, a complete list of properties and methods for their preservation. In the educational system, the main types of goods are the same as in the trade classification.
Food products are grouped into nine groups according to origin, peculiarities of production, common chemical composition and similar storage requirements. Grain, cereals and products from them form a grain group, the feature of products which is high in carbohydrates. This feature is also characteristic of the confectionery product group, plus a high energy component. It distinguishes chocolate and sweets, pastries and flour products, fruit and berry and oriental sweets, starch, sugar, honey, etc.
The group of dairy products has a lot of dietary advantages, the majority of these products diet and baby food. Fresh vegetables, fruits, mushrooms – group vitamin products. The presence of large amounts of protein and mineral components typical for the meat group. In addition to poultry and domestic animals this includes canned food, sausages and smoked meats, prepared foods, and other meat products cooking.
Eggs, egg powder and melange form a group with a balanced nutritional value. Another important source of valuable protein and minerals is the fish product group. This fish is fresh and frozen, as well as all products from it, including canned food.
The group edible fats – animal and vegetable oils, margarine, and the production of it. And flavouring group includes products that have a high impact on the human body. It's coffee, tea, alcohol, beverages, spices, herbs and tobacco. Educational classification of non-food products is based on the source material. In the background – the design and method of execution. There are similar trading system group: household chemicals, articles of plastics, electrical goods, perfumes and cosmetics, toys, books and printed materials, and there are more larger groups, for example, drevesnosmolyanoy, santricity, kojevennaya etc.
Economic Statistical Classification
The most complete economic statistical system. It is presented in a single product classifier, which is designed to ensure accuracy and comparability in the automated processing of information on industrial and agricultural products in various fields. It is used for the development and compilation of catalogs, where products are systematized on important technical and economic grounds. This is the basis for certification, inter-sectoral information exchange and implementation of statistical research, analysis and control at all stages and in all areas of production and sales of products at all levels.
The classifier is used in the systematization of information about products for the implementation of supply and sales operations, marketing research and other equally important goals.
The classifier uses a five-step hierarchical system with a digital, from zero to nine, coding system products. The first step - classes (two digits), then subclasses, groups, subgroups, the fifth step - types - the sixth digit in the code. When writing product names, the lexicographic abbreviated method is used, i.e., repeated elements of the vocabulary in consecutive names are allowed to be replaced with dashes and separated by a slash. To avoid incorrect positioning of products in the classifier, for some positions, explanations or clarifications are given. National Classifiers is a research institute for standardization and quality, together with industry organizations in ministries and departments. For detailing by brand, type, etc. are industry classifiers. The product ciphers in them must necessarily begin with a six-digit cipher from the national classifier. The grouping of goods in the nationwide classifier does not coincide with either the educational or the trading classification system, since this system does not take into account the quality and properties of the goods, does not take into account the interests of the enterprises selling them.
Developed the system for performing the works on certification of products and definition of requirements, conditions, methods and order of testing to control the quality of goods. It is represented in the national classifier. The basis of the standard system – product industry of its production.
Foreign trade classification
This system is used in foreign trade activities of the States. Based on the assignment of codes and the description of goods involved in international trade. The classification is developed and international trade organizations. On this subject has adopted a Convention.
The main goal of this is and will be the promotion of international trade,
reducing the cost of re-describing and assigning a code to a product when it is transferred from different classification systems, as well as standardization and unification of foreign trade documents.