The different properties and contents of material goods determine what a commodity is. Produced to meet a wide variety of needs and desires, the product is exhibited in all kinds of markets, in mini and supermarkets, in specialized stores and expensive boutiques, in short, at various shopping counters and sites. It has a certain set of characteristics and is the object of people's activities.
What is a product in the service sector? It is an intangible product in the form of actions, opportunities, advantages in satisfying the intangible needs of man. It has no physical form and is often a reinforcement for material goods. In the modern sphere of trade, even three levels of the product are singled out, which answer the question of what a product is, in terms of marketing. The initial level is, in fact, the idea, where they decide what the product and what human needs it will satisfy, what will be beneficial for it as a consumer. In the center is real execution, that is what happened. Here you can already evaluate the properties, quality, other characteristics. On the basis of the marketing evaluation of all attributes, a product with reinforcement of services and various benefits from its acquisition is already being formed. Commodity science as a science, for which the answer to the question of what a commodity is, is fundamental, uses five systems of its qualification.
In the manufacturing industry applied the same classification system. It has developed historically and is used for organization, planning, work management trading and storage companies. The basis of her product group, combined by a variety of symptoms. The sequence of evaluation for the enterprises can be different. The main ones are food and non-food. In turn, food is divided into bakery, meat and sausage, milk, oil, fish, egg, berry fruit, liquor, nonalcoholic, confectionery, Peseiro and tobacco products. By the method of suitability for use immediately after purchase, they are combined into a grocery and gastronomic subgroup. Grocery products (cereals, coffee, tea, frozen and dried vegetables and fruits, etc.) require additional processing and preparation before use. Products from the gastronomic department can be eaten immediately. They have increased taste characteristics. These are sausages, various canned foods, dairy products, confectionery and other products.
The industrial goods that make up the non-food group are divided into household chemicals, plastic products, glass, ceramics, wood, various metals, rubber, electrical appliances, household appliances, electronics, building materials, sewing, textile, knitwear, leather goods, fur, shoe products, haberdashery, stationery and school supplies, watches and jewelry, perfumes and cosmetics, sports goods, toys, books and printed products. These species include a variety of products. For various reasons, for convenience of presentation and implementation in trade networks, they can be disaggregated or combined.
Often apply complex consolidation in large groups. For example, on the basis of sex, enterprises with goods for men and women are created; age - children, adults, etc .; by the way of leisure - for gardeners, fishermen, hunters, tourists and so on.
The second classification system is used in textbooks and manuals on goods science as a program subject. Used for studying a wide range of goods, their purpose, a complete list of properties and ways to preserve them. In the training system, the main types of goods are the same as in the trade classification.
Food products are grouped into nine groups according to their origin, features of production, common chemical composition and similar storage requirements. Grain, cereals and products from them form a grain group, the characteristic of which is a high content of carbohydrates. This same feature is typical for the confectionery group of goods plus a high energy component. This distinguishes chocolate and sweets, pastries and flour products, fruit and berry and oriental sweets, starch, sugar, honey, etc.
The group of dairy products has a lot of dietary advantages, the majority of these products diet and baby food. Fresh vegetables, fruits, mushrooms – group vitamin products. The presence of large amounts of protein and mineral components typical for the meat group. In addition to poultry and domestic animals this includes canned food, sausages and smoked meats, prepared foods, and other meat products cooking.
Eggs, egg powder and melange form a group with a balanced nutritional value. Another important source of valuable protein and minerals is the fish group of goods. This fish is fresh and frozen, as well as all products from it, including canned food.
The group edible fats – animal and vegetable oils, margarine, and the production of it. And flavouring group includes products that have a high impact on the human body. It's coffee, tea, alcohol, beverages, spices, herbs and tobacco. Educational classification of non-food products is based on the source material. In the background – the design and method of execution. There are similar trading system group: household chemicals, articles of plastics, electrical goods, perfumes and cosmetics, toys, books and printed materials, and there are more larger groups, for example, drevesnosmolyanoy, santricity, kojevennaya etc.
Economic and statistical classification
The most complete economic and statistical system. It is presented in a single product classifier, which is designed to provide reliability and comparability in the automated processing of information on industrial and agricultural products in various fields. It is used for the development and compilation of catalogs, where products are systematized for important technical and economic characteristics. This is the basis for certification, inter-industry exchange of information and the implementation of statistical research, analysis and control at all stages and in all areas of production and sales of products at any level.
The classifier is used for the systematization of information on products for the implementation of supply and marketing operations, marketing research and other no less important purposes.
The classifier uses a five-level hierarchical system with a digital, from zero to nine, system of product coding. The first step is classes (two classes), then subclasses, groups, subgroups, fifth stage - views - the sixth digit in the code. When writing product names lexicographic abbreviated method is used, that is, repeated elements of vocabulary in successive names are replaced by dashes and separated by a slash. To avoid incorrect positioning of products in the classifier, some items are explained or clarified. The nation-wide classifiers are conducting a research institute on standardization and quality, together with industry organizations in ministries and departments. For detailing by brands, types, etc., lead sector classifiers. Ciphers of products in them must necessarily begin with a six-digit code number from the national classifier. The grouping of goods in the national classifier does not coincide either with the training or with the trading system of classification, since in this system the quality and properties of the goods are not taken into account, the interests of the enterprises trading them are not taken into account.
Developed the system for performing the works on certification of products and definition of requirements, conditions, methods and order of testing to control the quality of goods. It is represented in the national classifier. The basis of the standard system – product industry of its production.
Foreign trade classification
This system is used in foreign trade activities of the States. Based on the assignment of codes and the description of goods involved in international trade. The classification is developed and international trade organizations. On this subject has adopted a Convention.
The main purpose of this is and will be the promotion of international trade,
Reducing the cost of re-description and assignment of the code to the product upon its transition from different classification systems, as well as standardization and unification of foreign trade documents.