Sports relay race is a competition in the form of a set of specific team disciplines. Its characteristic feature is that the participants alternately pass through the stages with the transfer from one queue to another of moving along the distance.
What it looks like
The transition between the stages occurs everywhere in its own way. For example, athletics involves the transfer of a baton or tape, skiing - a quick physical touch of the hands of athletes of adjacent stages. In water sports - this is the swimmer’s touch on the side of the pool. The general meaning of the relay, which the team seeks to observe, is to reach the finish line faster than anyone.
The word "relay race" of French origin. It is connected with the fast horse mail (sending of drug messengers). Nowadays, this is a separate spectacular sport, which is very popular. The relay is an integral part of the competition program of professional athletes in swimming, biathlon, speed skating and orienteering. Well, athletics, of course, holds the palm here. In addition, sports events in the form of a relay race, held at the amateur level for both adults and children, are very popular.
More than a hundred years in a row the relay is connected with the Olympiads. Since 1900, the Olympic competitions in the form of a relay race in swimming, since 1908 - in athletics, since 1936 - in skiing. Let us consider in more detail the various types of relays.
Running - Relay
The track and field relay race is an exciting spectacle. Most often it ends the program of the competition. It occurs, as a rule, at the stadium and causes a real flurry of emotions.
The relay race is an excellent means of strengthening the team spirit and rallying athletes. Anyone who has ever participated in it (for example, at school physical education classes) will forever remember the indescribable feeling of seething adrenaline. In such conditions, it is especially important for athletes to be able to maintain endurance and discipline throughout the stage.
Relays are different. Classic distances for most competitions are 4 x 100 m and 4 x 400 m. If amateurs compete, the organizers have the right to choose the distance on their own. Thus, athletes can compete both at 4 x 60 meters and at 4 x 800 meters.
Another kind of relay called the Swedish. Its difference is that the participants pass through stages of different lengths. Most often the length of the distance decreases from stage to stage, for example, it can be in the form of segments of length 800, then 400, then 200 and 100 meters.
In the street relay races, which are organized in connection with any holiday (most often on May 9), there are no hard distances. Stages there are usually tied to the length and location of streets and depend on the route developed by the organizers.
The rules of running in the relay
The sports relay is always organized according to clearly defined rules. The key moment of the relay race is the transfer of wands. If an athlete accidentally drops it, he will have to raise it and pass it on to the next participant. As a rule, the zone or area in which the transfer of the baton occurs, has a length of about 20 meters. It is most often isolated with a white line. Competition athletes begin to accelerate ten meters before the start of the designated corridor.
During the official competition in discipline 4 by 100 meters, participants are required to strictly adhere to their path. In the track and field relay for a longer distance (400 meters) it is allowed to observe this rule only during the first lap and the initial turn (that is, the first 100 meters) of the second. In the case of an athlete's transition to someone else's track, the entire team will be disqualified.
Helping each other athletes is prohibited. Dropped the baton must raise it necessarily himself. An athlete who has run his distance is not allowed to leave the track until the end of the run of his entire team.
The basics of relay technology
These include the methods of transmitting the baton, which is done in one of two options. Either the athlete during the course shifts the wand into the hand in which it is more convenient for him to hold it, or invariably carries it in the same hand - in the one into which the participant of the previous stage put it. This is most often done when running for short distances in order to save time.
Another key point that athletes need to carefully work out for successful performance is determining the exact place to start acceleration. Hone this important skill occurs over a considerable number of workouts.
Pull the hand with a baton runner begins in the middle of his stage. He can alert the receiver in a voice. An athlete awaiting the use of a wand must hold his hand back with his hand lowered and his thumb toward the thigh. Only in this case, the transmitter will succeed in putting the baton into the receiver's palm.
When transferring it, it is important to observe the optimal speed, which should be approximately the same for both athletes in the zone of transfer.
Sports relay race is impossible without the active participation of the coach, whose main task for ensuring success is the correct selection of participants in the relay team. Choosing athletes to participate in competitions, an experienced coach takes into account the personal performance of each of them, the ability to achieve coherence among the runners among themselves, a good working out of the technique when passing the stick and the presence of team spirit. Victory can only give the coordinated work of all participants of the four-athletics.
Relay in swimming
Swimming is extremely popular with professional and amateur athletes. There are many types of it and techniques. Swimming can be sports, wellness, game, figure (synchronous or artistic), as well as underwater. Sports swimming involves participation in competitions organized by the approved rules. A classic type of swimming competition is to overcome the standard pool distance of 25 or 50 meters.
The swimming itself is conducted in a strictly defined style - a crawl on the chest or on the back, breaststroke or butterfly. These methods differ in speed and technique. Under the freestyle means that the swimmer can choose any of the available styles and even change it during the passage of the distance. In practice, all athletes choose the crawl on the chest as the fastest and most effective of the styles.
Distances in swimming competitions can be very different - from 50 to 800 meters for women and up to 1500 meters for men. There is also complex swimming, which consists in alternately passing the same distances by different styles in a strictly defined sequence.
In this kind of sport, like swimming, the relay race exists in the form of a team of swimmers going through four distances of one hundred or two hundred meters. Each of the four swimmers passes alternately in the same segment of 100 or 200 m freestyle. If we are talking about a combined relay, swimmers in turn demonstrate one of four ways in a strictly defined sequence.
The relay begins with the style of crawl on the back, continues with the breaststroke, after it the butterfly stroke and ends with the freestyle.
The World Summer Relay - Universiade, held in July 2013 in Gwangju (South Korea), demonstrated to the world the success of Russian athletes in the relay race in swimming. The women's team of Russian athletes in the combined relay ranked fourth.
Men's relay especially pleased the fans. Our team of male swimmers has bypassed the Americans and the Japanese. Success brought athletes combined relay 4 by 100 m.
Swimming and running are not the only sports where you can play as a group.
Team competitions are an indispensable component of this sport. They are part of the biathlon team, which is going to be the relay race, women, men, boys and girls - juniors and juniors, and it consists of four or three people. Each of the athletes will have to go through their own stage, in which two firing lines are located.
What is the distance in a sport like biathlon, relay? Men travel a distance of 7.5 kilometers, for women it is 6 kilometers. At the start go simultaneously to the representative of each team. After passing their stage, they give up the baton to the next athlete. At the first shooting range, biathletes will have to shoot from a lying position, while at the second - standing.
Places near the targets are distributed according to start numbers. All athletes for each shooting have 3 spare cartridges. With their premature consumption for unclosed targets, a penalty circle with a length of 150 meters was laid.
In biathlon, the relay race is the oldest. For the first time the Olympic Games, in which biathlon men took part, took place in 1968. Women have been participating in the Olympic Biathlon Relay since 1992.
This team competition in biathlon is referred to as “mixed relay”. It is included in the program of the championships and the World Cup, including the summer biathlon.
But this is not only a sport. The relay is extremely popular with fans of all ages - from children to senior citizens. For teenagers and young people there are a great many varieties of sports relay races. Many of them have been adopted by sports school coaches, physical education teachers, and sports event organizers in summer recreation camps.
How can you organize fun and exciting relay competitions for children and teenagers? For example, in a summer camp? Such team competitions, having a part of a game, a part of a sporting character, are usually called “fun starts”. By participating in them, children have the opportunity to demonstrate agility, speed and physical strength. At such competitions, a healthy spirit of rivalry usually reigns and serious emotions rage.
For younger children, as a rule, plot-themed relays are organized. A group of players or an individual participant is given a specific task. The competition takes place in the form of a game, most often in the form of fights of varying degrees of complexity.
If a children's sports relay is planned, the organizers staff teams from two players or more, selecting an equal number of participants for them, as well as trying to distribute equally the girls and boys. Each team gets a bright memorable name.
Preparing for the relay at the summer camp
A playground and the necessary equipment is being prepared (we are talking about jumps, balls, pins, hoops). You need to invite or appoint judges, assistants, agree on the rules of the competition, evaluation criteria and penalty points. You will need to make scoreboards, banners and slogans for fans, as well as awards to champions and consolation prizes for outsiders.
At the ceremonial opening of the relay team go and build in a predetermined order. After the appeal of the main organizer of the competition, the teams pronounce the greeting, then represent the arbitrators. An important element of the opening ceremony of the relay in the summer children's camp is the raising of the flag and, if possible, the process of lighting the “Olympic” fire.
After the demonstration performance of the pros (as a rule, these are experienced older athletes), the participants are explained the rules of future competitions, then the teams come to the start and build up to the start. A good move from the organizers will be an invigorating musical accompaniment, incendiary with humor comments, characteristic details of costumes for each team and, of course, active support of players by fans.
Instructors preparing the summer camp for the relay can be advised to save time in advance to designate the rules on the stands, prepare the necessary signs and plates, put on the platform a permanent marking in the form of lines, circles, squares. In advance, care should be taken to ensure that the equipment is in good condition, especially balls.
Game teams should be organized as much as possible so that all participants are involved. No one should stand by. A good instructor will find a way to encourage children to cooperate and improve team spirit.
How to organize the baton
It is necessary to agree in advance on which signs and commands will be used. For example, the left hand is raised - the requirement of silence. A sharp whistle trill - start or finish. Use hand gestures or pre-specified gestures. The route of the relay should be planned in advance and pass through open space (not along the walls). Players must have enough space to return from the far end of the course.
If there are too many participants in the team, it should be divided into two smaller groups. Players need to be periodically interchanged with each other. If an odd number of children are involved, someone from a smaller team will have to run twice.
The relay races themselves are organized with various items and without them. They can be simple and complex. The complexity and distance entirely depend on the age and level of athletic training of players. The simple ones are those in which all players perform the same task, for example, dribbling, running for the desired distance, dragging a load. In complex relay races, there are more than two variants of tasks, and an obstacle course may also be present.
They can be divided into arbitrary and relay races with strict rules. By the type of movement of the players, the baton can be counter, linear, circular. Players can complete tasks in chains, in rows or columns. They are also divided into collective and individual. In the latter, each participant performs the desired action in turn. In collective movement occurs in groups and success depends on the coherence of the team as a whole.
What are the relay races for kids
There are a lot of funny relay races. Consider some of them.
Each of the two teams of players is divided in half. Participants are built face to face behind the marked lines. Those who lead opposing teams on one of the sides receive baton sticks or small balls. At the signal, they begin to run around the ranks of players, passing the baton to the extreme player of their team, standing opposite. Then - the next, and so on. The end of the relay is the moment when both teams take their place. The winning team is the fastest.
Several teams (from three to five) line up in the form of the rays of the sun or the spokes of a wheel in a circle with their faces in the same direction. The outermost wheels hold the baton. At the whistle, they begin to run in a circle, passing the baton to the extreme players of their team waiting for them, and they themselves join the line from the other side (in the middle of the circle). In this case, the entire rank makes a half step out from the center. Each team finishes the baton at the moment when the one who started the game will again be from the outer edge and lift the baton up.
It involves three teams. In the center of the site a large flag is placed, in the four corners - smaller flags. Teams are lined up next to the start line. At the whistle, the player runs around each of the four flags and runs again to the start. The winner is the team whose final one is the one who runs the flags. Then he goes to the central flag and knocks on it with a baton.
Relay with the ball
Two parallel columns of players, standing one or two steps apart, pass the ball from hand to hand in a certain way from beginning to end and back. There are several such repetitions. Wins the team before the other finished the transfer.
Columns of players are also built parallel to each other, stands are placed 10 meters away from them. At the command, the first players run to the racks, round them, return to the start and run past their team. Rounding the column behind them, they return to the racks, but at the level of the starting line, the second players wrap around their belts, at the next turn they are joined by the third, etc. That is, the whole group is a train with carriages. The winner is the team, the last car of which earlier than the others crosses the starting line.