The sports relay race is a competition in the form of a set of certain command disciplines. Its characteristic feature is the passing by participants of the stages in turn, with the transfer from one to the other of the queue of movement along the distance.
How it looks like
The transition between stages occurs everywhere in its own way. For example, athletics involves the transfer of a baton or tape, skiing is a quick physical touch of the hands of athletes of adjacent stages. In water sports - this is the swimmer's sweep of the pool edge. The overall meaning of the relay, which the team seeks to achieve, is to reach the finish line faster than everyone.
The very word "relay race" of French origin. It is associated with the ambulance mail (the dispatch of couriers). Nowadays this is a separate spectacular sport that is very popular. The relay race is an integral part of the competition program for professional athletes in swimming, biathlon, speed skating and orienteering. Well, athletics, of course, holds here the palm of primacy. In addition, very popular sporting events in the form of relay, conducted at an amateur level for both adults and children.
More than a hundred years in a row the relay race is connected with the Olympiads. Since 1900, the Olympic competitions have been held in the form of a relay race in swimming, since 1908 - in athletics, since 1936 - in skiing. Let us consider in more detail the different kinds of relay races.
Running - Relay
Track-and-field relay race is an exciting sight. Most often it is completed by the program of competitions. It happens, as a rule, at the stadium and causes a real flurry of emotions.
Track-and-field relay race is an excellent means of strengthening team spirit and rallying athletes. Anyone who has at least once participated in it (for example, at school physical education classes), will forever remember the inexpressible feeling of seething adrenaline. In such circumstances, it is especially important for athletes to be able to maintain restraint and discipline completely during the stage.
Relays are different. Classical distances for most competitions - 4 x 100 m and 4 x 400 m. If amateurs compete, the organizers have the right to choose the distance themselves. Thus, athletes can compete both on segments of 4 x 60 meters, and at the stages of 4 x 800 meters.
Another kind of relay is called Swedish. Its difference is in the participants passing stages of different lengths. Most often the length of the distance decreases from stage to stage, for example, it can be in the form of lengths 800, then 400, then 200 and 100 meters.
In street relay races, which are arranged in connection with a holiday (most often on May 9), there are no hard distances. The stages there are usually tied to the length and location of the streets and depend on the route developed by the organizers.
Rules of running in the relay race
The sports relay race is always organized according to strictly regulated rules. The key point of the relay race is the transfer of the wand. If the athlete accidentally drops it, he will have to pick it up and give it to the next participant. As a rule, the zone or area on which the transfer of the baton passes takes about 20 meters. It is most often distinguished by a white line. Competitive athletes begin to accelerate a dozen meters before the designated corridor.
During the official competition in discipline 4 to 100 meters from the participants it is required to strictly adhere to their path. In the athletics relay race for a longer distance (400 meters) it is allowed to observe this rule only during the first round and the initial turn (ie the first 100 meters) of the second. In the case of the transfer of an athlete to someone else's track, the whole team is disqualified.
Helping each other athletes is prohibited. The defunct baton must be lifted by itself. The athlete who has run his distance is not allowed to leave the track until the end of the run of his entire team.
The Azi of Relay Technology
These include the transfer of the baton, which is done in one of two ways. Either the athlete, during the distance, shifts the wand to the hand in which it is more convenient for him to hold, or invariably carries it in the same hand - in the one into which the participant of the previous stage put the wand. So often come when running for short distances to save time.
Another key point that athletes need to work out carefully for a successful performance is determining the exact place to start overclocking. The sharpening of this important skill occurs during a considerable number of training sessions.
Pull the hand with the baton runner begins already in the middle of its stage. He can warn the receiver of the voice. Waiting for the reception of the wand, the athlete must keep his hand retracted with the brush lowered and pointing to the thigh with his thumb. Only in this case the communicator will successfully put the baton in the palm of the receiver.
When transmitting it, it is important to observe the optimal speed, which should be approximately the same for both athletes in the transmission zone.
The sports relay race is impossible without the active participation of the coach, whose main task is to ensure the success of the right selection of participants in the relay team. Choosing athletes for participation in competitions, an experienced coach takes into account the personal indicators of each of them, the ability to achieve the consistency of the runners among themselves, a good technique for the transfer of wand and the presence of team spirit. Victory can only be given by the well-coordinated work of all participants of the athletics four.
Relay in swimming
Swimming is extremely popular among sports professionals and amateurs. There are many types and techniques. Swimming can be sports, health, game, figure (synchronous or artistic), as well as underwater. Sports swimming involves participation in competitions organized according to approved rules. Classical type of swimming competitions - overcoming the standard distance of the pools of 25 or 50 meters.
The very swimming is strictly a certain style - a crochet on the chest or back, breaststroke or butterfly. These methods differ in speed and technique. Freestyle means that the swimmer can choose any of the existing styles and even change it during the distance. In practice, all athletes choose the crochet on the chest as the fastest and most effective of the styles.
Distances in swimming competitions can be very different - from 50 to 800 meters for women and up to 1500 meters for men. There is also a complex swimming, consisting in the passage of alternately the same distances in different styles in a strictly defined sequence.
In such sports as swimming, the relay race exists in the form of a team of swimmers four distances of one hundred or two hundred meters. Each of the four swimmers passes alternately in the same stretch of 100 or 200 m freestyle. If we are talking about a combined relay race, swimmers alternately demonstrate one of four ways in a strictly defined sequence.
The relay begins with a crochet style on the back, continues with a breaststroke, after it is a butterfly and ends in a freestyle.
The World Summer Relay - Universiade, held in July 2013 in Gwangju (South Korea), demonstrated to the whole world the successes of Russian athletes in the swimming relay race. The women's team of Russian athletes in the combined relay race took the fourth place.
The men's relay was especially pleased with the fans. Our team of male swimmers bypassed Americans and Japanese. The success brought to the athletes a combined relay race 4 to 100 m.
Swimming and running are not the only sports where you can act as a group.
Biathlon: relay race
Team competitions are an indispensable component of this sport. They enter the biathlon team, which will be the relay race, women, men, boys and girls - juniors and juniors, and it consists of four or three people. Each of the athletes will have to go through their own stage, which has two firing ranges.
What are the distances in a sport like biathlon, relay race? Men walk a distance of 7.5 kilometers, for women it is 6 kilometers. At the start go simultaneously on the representative of each team. After passing their stage they give the baton to the next athlete. At the first shooting range biathlonists will have to fire from a lying position, on the second - standing.
Places near the targets are distributed to the starting numbers. All athletes have 3 spare rounds for each shooting. At their premature outlay for the unclosed targets a penalty circle with a length of 150 meters is laid.
Olympic competitions in biathlon
In biathlon relay competitions are the oldest. For the first time the Olympic Games in which male biathletes took part took place in 1968. Women have been participating in the Olympic relay race in biathlon since 1992.
This team competition in biathlon is called a "mixed relay". It is included in the program of championships and the World Cup, including in the summer biathlon.
But this is not just a sport. The relay race is extremely popular among fans of all ages - from children to retirees. For teens and young people, there are a great many varieties of sports relay races. Many of them are used by trainers of sports schools, teachers of physical culture, organizers of sports events in summer health camps.
Amateur relay races
How can you organize fun and exciting competitions-relay races for children and teenagers? For example, in a summer camp? Such team competitions, which have a part of the game, are part of the sporting character, are usually called "merry starts". By participating in them, children have the opportunity to demonstrate dexterity, speed and physical strength. At such competitions, a healthy spirit of competition prevails and serious emotions rage.
For younger children, as a rule, story-thematic relay races can be organized. A group of players or an individual participant is given a specific task. The match takes place in a game form, most often in the form of duels of varying degrees of complexity.
If a children's sports relay race is planned, the organizers will complete teams of two or more players, selecting an equal number of participants for them, and also trying to distribute the girls and boys equally. Each team gets a bright and memorable name.
Preparing for the relay in the summer camp
Preparing the site and the necessary equipment (it is a question of skipping rods, balls, skittles, hoops). It is necessary in advance to invite or appoint judges, assistants, agree on the rules of competition, evaluation criteria and penalty points. You will need to produce a scoreboard, banners and slogans for the fans, as well as awards to the champions and consolation prizes to outsiders.
At the solemn opening of the relay race, the teams go out and build in a predetermined order. After the appeal of the main organizer of the competitions, the commands are greeted, then they are presented by the arbitrators. An important element of the opening ceremony of the relay in the summer children's camp is the rise of the flag and, if possible, the process of lighting the "Olympic" fire.
After the demonstration performance of the pros (usually experienced veteran athletes) the participants explain the rules of future competitions, then the teams under the stormy cheers of the fans go to the start and are built. Successful course on the part of the organizers will be an invigorating musical accompaniment, incendiary comments with humor, characteristic details of each team details of the costumes and, of course, active support of the players by the fans.
Instructors, preparing the summer camp for the relay, can be advised to save time in advance to designate on the stands the rules, prepare the necessary signs and plaques, put on the site a permanent marking in the form of lines, circles, squares. In advance, care must be taken to ensure that the inventory is working, especially the balls.
Game teams should be organized as much as possible, so that all participants are involved. No one should stand by. A good instructor will find a way to encourage children to cooperate and raise team spirit.
How to organize the baton correctly
It is necessary to agree in advance on what signs and commands will be used. For example, the left hand is raised - the requirement of silence. A sharp whistle of the whistle - the start or finish. Use hand swing or pre-determined gestures. The relay route should be planned in advance and pass through the open space (not along the walls). Players must have enough space to return from the far end of the race.
If there are too many participants in the team, you should divide it into two smaller groups. Players need to periodically change places with each other. If an odd number of children participate, someone from the smaller team will have to run twice.
The relay races themselves are organized with various items and without them. They can be simple and complex. The complexity and distance entirely depend on the age and level of athletic training of players. To the simple are those in which all players perform the same task, for example, keeping the ball, running to the desired distance, dragging any cargo. In complex relay batches, there are more than two variants of tasks, and there may also be an obstacle course.
They can be divided into arbitrary and relay races with strict rules. By the form of movement of players, the relay can be counter, linear, circular. Players can perform tasks on a chain, rows or columns. They are also divided into collective and individual. In the latter, each participant performs the necessary action in turn. In the collective movement occurs in groups and success depends on the teamwork of the team as a whole.
What are the relay races for children
There are a lot of cheerful relay races. Let's consider some of them.
Each of the two teams of players is divided in half. Participants are built face-to-face behind the marked lines. Those who lead opposing teams on one side receive baton sticks or small balls. At the signal, they begin to run around the line of players, passing the baton to the last player of their team, standing opposite. Then - the next, etc. The end of the relay is the moment when both teams will take each other's place. The team that is the fastest wins.
Several teams (three to five) line up in the form of rays of the sun or spokes of the wheel in a circle face in the same direction. The extreme from the center of the wheel are the baton rods. On the whistle they begin to run around in a circle, passing the baton to the waiting players of their team waiting for them, and they themselves become in their line from the other side (in the middle of the circle). At the same time, the entire line makes a half-step outward from the center. The end of the relay is every team at the moment when the starting game again appears from the outside edge and lifts the baton up.
It involves three teams. In the center of the site a big flag is placed, on the four corners there are smaller flags. The teams line up in the columns next to the start line. On the whistle, the player runs each of the four flags and again runs to the start. The team that wins the first flags will win. Then he goes to the central flag and knocks on it with a baton.
Relay with ball
Two parallel columns of players standing in one or two steps from each other, passing from hand to hand the ball in a certain way from beginning to end and back. There are several such repetitions. A team wins before the other has finished the transfer.
Players' columns are also built parallel to each other, meters in 10 from them are placed racks. On command, the first players run to the racks, circle around them, return to the start and run past their team. Having rounded the column behind, they return to the racks, but at the level of the starting line they are wrapped around the waists by the second players, on the next turn, they are joined by others, etc. That is the whole group is a train with trailers. The team wins, the last trailer of which, before the others, will cross the starting line.