Today in Russia there is no class division, it was abolished after the revolution in 1917. And what class in pre-revolutionary Russia, to what social groups belonged to our ancestors and what rights and responsibilities they had? Let's face it.
What is the estate in the Russian Empire?
A similar division of the people was the official in pre-revolutionary Russia. First and foremost, the class was divided into taxable and exempt. Within these two large groups had their own units and layers. The state was granted certain rights to each class. These rights were enshrined by law. Each group had to perform certain duties.
So what is the class? So in Russia can be called the category of citizens who enjoyed special rights and their duties towards the state.
When there was a bar in Russia?
Class division started to occur since the formation of the Russian state. Originally it was a group class, not much differing among themselves in the rights. Conversion to the Peter-Catherine's era formed a clear class boundaries, but the difference of the Russian system from the Western European were far more opportunities to move from one group to another, for example through public service.
Class in Russia ceased to exist in 1917.
The main difference between social classes in the Russian Empire
The main visible difference between them was their right to benefits. Representatives of the exempt class had considerable privileges:
- did not pay a per capita tax;
- not subjected to corporal punishment
- was exempt from military service (until 1874).
Unprivileged, or tax, the bar has been deprived of these rights.
Privileged social groups
The nobility was the most honourable estate of the Russian Empire, the basis for the state support of the monarch, the most educated and cultural layer of society. And you need to understand that this class was dominant in Russia, despite its scarcity.
The nobility was divided into two groups: hereditary and personal. The first was considered to be more honorary and hereditary. Personal nobility could be obtained in the order of service or a special Supreme award, and it could be hereditary (hereditary descendants) or life (for children did not apply).
The clergy – privileged class. Into the white (secular) and black (monks). According to the degree of the priesthood, the clergy were divided into three groups: Bishop, priest and deacon.
The accessory to spiritual estate was inherited to the children, and may also be acquired by joining the white clergy members of other social groups. The exceptions were serfs without leave from the owners. Children of the clergy, upon coming of age retain the accessory to spiritual estate only under condition of availability at swedenborgianism position. But they could elect and secular career. In this case, they had rights equal to the rights of personal nobility.
The merchant was also a privileged class. Divided into guilds, depending on which merchants have different privileges and the right to trade and fish. The entry in the merchant of other classes was possible on a temporary basis when you pay with Guild duties. Belonging to this social group was determined by the amount of the declared share capital. Children belonged to the merchant class, but upon reaching adulthood had to sign up to the Guild to purchase a separate certificate or became townspeople.
The Cossacks – a special military caste polipropilenovye. The Cossacks have the right of corporate ownership of land and were exempt from duties, but undertook to perform military service. Belonging to the Cossack class was hereditary, however, to enroll in the Cossack troops and members of other social groups. The Cossacks could reach in the service of the nobility. Then belonging to the nobility was combined with an accessory to the Cossacks.
Non-privileged social groups
The petty bourgeoisie – the urban tax-paying non-privileged class. The burgers were mandatory assigned to a particular city, to leave from which could only be on a temporary passport. Paid a poll tax, were obliged to perform military duties, had no right to enter public service. The accessory to petty-bourgeois estate was hereditary. Artisans and small merchants also belonged to the bourgeois class, but could improve their situation. Artisans have taken up shop and became the shop. Small traders began to move into the merchant class.
The peasantry – the most numerous and dependent social group, deprived of privileges. The peasantry was divided into:
- state-owned (owned by the state or Royal house),
- the landlord,
- possessional (assigned to factories and plants).
The representatives of the peasantry were attached to their community, a poll tax paid and subject to execution of levy and other duties, and could be subjected to corporal punishment. However, after the reform of 1861, they had the opportunity to move to the city and recorded in the petty bourgeois when you purchase the city real estate. This opportunity was used by them: the farmer bought the property in the city, became a citizen and exempt from taxes, while continuing to live in the village and engage in agriculture.
In the early nineteenth century, the time of the revolution and the abolition of class organisation in Russia, many boundaries and divisions between social strata are noticeably worn. The representatives of the estates had a lot more opportunities to move from one social group to another. Also duties of each class have undergone a significant transformation.