English grammar does not have a system that is decisive in the process of learning the language. The main assistant in this matter will be a dictionary.
Word formation in English grammar
Often in English, as in other foreign languages, students are faced with one difficulty: words that belong to one part of speech, through different ways, go into the other.
It should be noted that word formation in the English language is not always as unambiguous as it seems in reality. Today there are 2 prevailing ways: conversion and compositing.
Word-synthesis \u0026 ndash; addition of several words into one whole. More often such words are written together or through a hyphen. A great rarity, when separated. For example, to pin point \u0026 ndash; to clarify.
Conversion \u0026 ndash; this transformation from one part of speech to another. For example, brave \u0026 ndash; the brave (bold \u0026 ndash; brave). More often, not only nouns but also verbs are subject to conversion.
Ways of word formation in English
1. Prefix \u0026 ndash; This is when the prefix is attached to the stem or to the root of the word.
4. Change the stress in the word: to pro`gress - `progress (develop \u0026 ndash; development).
5. Alternating sounds in a word: to use [ju: z] \u0026 ndash; use [ju: s] (use \u0026 ndash; use).
6. Word composition: watch \u0026 ndash; look, man- man \u0026 ndash; watchman \u0026 ndash; watchman.
7. Abbreviation: telephone \u0026 ndash; phone.
8. Abbreviations (letters or initials) \u0026 ndash; USA \u0026 ndash; United States of America.
9. Telescopic words: sea and laboratory \u0026 ndash; sea-lab.
Word formation in English on this list does not end. Only the commonly used methods are shown here.
I want to pay special attention to such a way of word formation as affixation. In ordinary language, this method is similar to a puzzle or designer, which must be collected in pieces and details. So it is in affixation. Collected from pieces of words are easier to remember. Each part has its own meaning.
Consider the topic of word formation in more detail with the help of a noun.
When adding the suffix "ade" to the noun, denoting the result and the process of certain actions or adopting words from French or Spanish. For example, block \u0026 ndash; blockade.
When adding the suffix "age" to the noun, which indicates any content (units of measure). For example, percent \u0026 ndash; percentage.
When adding the suffix "dom" to the noun, having 3 designations: territory, state and quality. For example, wise \u0026 ndash; wisdom.
When adding the suffix "ess" to the noun, expressing a feminine noun (animate). For example, lion \u0026 ndash; lioness.
When adding the suffix \u0026 hood to the noun, it expresses belonging to a group or state. For example, brother \u0026 ndash; brotherhood.
When adding the suffix "ese" to the noun, it expresses belonging to a particular nation. For example, Japan \u0026 ndash; Japanese.
When adding the suffix -ian to the noun; -an, also expresses belonging to any nation. For example, Russia \u0026 ndash; Russian.
One of the easiest ways of word formation is conversion. In this way, the word that has undergone word formation does not change either in its pronunciation or in writing. English has many similar cases. Here are some examples of absolute conversions:
Water \u0026 ndash; to water \u0026 ndash; if in the first case the word is a noun, then in word formation it becomes a verb (water \u0026 ndash; water).
Sometimes the end result of word formation means the process of action. For example:
Fish \u0026 ndash; to fish. The first word is translated as a fish, and the second is a process (to fish).
Verbs can also be formed from adjectives. For example:
Slim \u0026 ndash; to slim. Adjective "lean" turns into the verb "lose weight."
If, on the one hand, the conversion helps students to perceive and understand the language, then on the other hand will lead to a lot of difficulties during the translation. To translate the text, you need to determine the part of the speech to which the word belongs, pay attention to the content of the text and the articles used in it.
The notion of word formation in tables
In order to explain the word formation in English, the table below can be a good help. It shows us the often used suffixes of verbs.
To show the essence of the prefixes in the topic "Word formation in English", the table below represents the most common ones. This information is especially useful for beginners.
We further study word formation in English. The following table lists the suffixes. In this case we are talking about adjectives.
In order to understand more deeply what word formation is in English, it is necessary to carry out verification tasks on this topic. The following exercises and testing will help people who study English independently.
Word formation in English. Exercises
To your attention simplified exercises are presented. Theme - word formation in English and practical exercises.
1. In the following exercises, choose the correct form of word formation:
1.1. He did it very easily. Hi did it very \u0026 hellip ;.
1.2. I can learn this material very quickly. I can learn this material very.
1.3. Luckily, he survived. \u0026 hellip; he survived.
1.4. He did it very boldly. He did it very \u0026 hellip;
1.5. I'm terribly sorry! I am \u0026 hellip; sorry.
2. Translate into English:
2.1. Make an action \u0026 ndash; remade.
2.2. Make (goods) \u0026 ndash; remade.
2.3. Read - reread.
2.4. Play (music) \u0026 ndash; play again.
2.5. Tie \u0026 ndash; untie.
2.6. Cover (anything) \u0026 ndash; open.
2.7. Button (button) \u0026 ndash; to unbutton.
2.8. Run (work) \u0026 ndash; refuse.
Definition of word formation in the text
3. Find in the text words obtained by word formation, and determine how they are formed.
The first president suggested destroying of some old fashioned buildings in the capital of his country. And also he wanted to build a lot of beautiful bus-stops.
The theme "Word formation in the English language" is rather complicated. Without practical lessons, it will be difficult to master. Therefore, to consolidate theoretical knowledge, it is necessary to pass a small test "Word formation in English".
1. They are _______happy:
2. He is a ________
a) docter b) mechanic c) buildor.
3. You are ________
a) impolite b) immoral c) invention.
4. This is _____________
a) harmfull b) harmless c) worthwhile.
5. He is very _________popular:
6. I pay for it
a) weakly b) monthly c) every yearly.
7. I am success ______________
a) ion b) ful c) less.
Word formation in English is a rather complex subject, and in order to correctly distinguish all the ways of word formation, it is necessary to learn only the methods often used. Good luck in learning English!
Responses to tasks and testing
Answers to tests:
1-a, 2-b, 3-a, 4-c, 5-c, 6-b, 7-b.