Everyone probably heard about such a concept as synonyms. This term refers to the field of knowledge - lexicology. What is a “synonym word”? And what kinds of them stand out? About this - this article.
Rule: what is a synonym
Our language is amazing and multifaceted: humanity has come up with many ways to express as accurately and vividly as possible their thoughts and emotions in words. Let's try to deal with one of these methods.
What is a synonym? The term “synonimus” in translation means “of the same name”. By definition, synonyms are words that are written and pronounced differently, but carry the same meaning.
To understand what a synonym is, you need to give a few examples. Here, say, two words: brave and brave. These are classic synonymous words. It should be immediately noted that synonyms can be different parts of speech: nouns and adjectives, verbs and adverbs.
The role and meaning of the word-synonyms is obvious. They are designed to make our speech more expressive, more colorful, and also to deprive it of its monotony.
The history of the appearance of synonyms
It is also important to find out how and when these words arose in our speech. This will help in more detail and comprehensively disclose the question of what is a synonym.
It should be noted that synonyms appear and appear constantly in our speech. It is an absolutely continuous and endless process.
There are several options (ways) to enrich the language with new synonyms:
- The process of consolidation (combination) of language, the crossing of different dialects and sub-dialects. As in every dialect to this phenomena and objects could be named differently, if they are mixed could be different designations of the same things.
- Words-synonyms can penetrate from one language to another (especially if we are talking about related, close languages). Thus arose the various Slavicisms.
- The development of mankind, the improvement of production also contributes to the emergence of new words-synonyms.
What is a synonym? Examples
Thus, there are several ways to form these words. Now it is necessary to find out as specifically as possible what a synonym is. Examples of such words you can read below:
- nouns: village - village; the world is the universe; holiday - celebration, etc .;
- adjectives: brave - brave; spoiled - disfigured; scarlet - crimson, drunk - drunk, etc .;
- verbs: walk - march; take offense - sulk and others;
- adverbs: wide - spacious; cool - cool; fun - joy, etc.
Main types of synonyms
Synonyms are classified according to different criteria: according to the designated subject, etymological basis; whenever possible use in specific style of speech and so on. There are several types of synonyms:
- morphological synonyms are different forms of a word expressing the same concept. Here, for example, literary and dialect variants of words can be represented;
- syntactic synonyms are words and constructions used to express the same thought;
- verbal synonyms are the formation of new words by adding prefixes or suffixes, for example: wrote - wrote;
- phraseological synonyms are different phraseological units denoting the same concept: “not all houses are in the head” - “without a king in the head”, etc .;
- ideographic synonyms are synonymous words that differ from each other in semantic meanings. For example: surprise - hit; famous - outstanding;
- stylistic synonyms are synonyms that are used depending on the style of speech. They may include literary (book) version and colloquial. For example: die - die; daughter - daughter; irresponsibility - quick work.
Synonyms and antonyms
Speaking about the words-synonyms, it is impossible not to mention such a concept as “antonyms”. What it is?
The term comes from two Greek words: “αντί” – against and “όνομα” – name. Name two antonyms words that are opposite of each other meaning and different spelling. Here are some examples of words-antonyms: warm – cold, evil – good, fly – dropping, brave – cowardly, easily – hard, sick and well, to forget – to remember, sad – happy, black – white, etc.
It should be noted that antonyms are most often characteristic of such parts of speech as adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Antonyms can combine only those pairs of words that contain radically opposite meanings. In this case, any such unifying qualitative attribute should be the basis of any such pair of antonyms. Two words that refer to different parts of speech cannot be called antonyms.
So we figured out what the synonym is. Now you know the important role that synonyms play in our speech. They not only make it possible to express their thoughts as accurately as possible. They also enrich, decorate our language. Moreover, this process is continuous.