Everyone has probably heard about such a concept as synonyms. This term refers to the field of knowledge - lexicology. What is a "synonym word"? And what kinds of species are distinguished? About this - this article.
Rule: what is a synonym
Our language is amazing and multifaceted: mankind has come up with many ways to express its thoughts and emotions in words as accurately and vividly as possible. Let's try to deal with one of these methods.
What is a synonym? The very term "synonimus" in translation means "eponymous". By definition, synonyms are words that are written and pronounced in different ways, but carry the same meaning.
To understand what a synonym is, you need to give a few examples. Let's say two words: brave and brave. These are classic synonyms. It should be noted immediately that synonyms can be different parts of speech: nouns and adjectives, verbs and adverbs.
The role and meaning of the words-synonyms is obvious. They are called to make our speech more expressive, more colorful, and also to deprive it of monotony.
The history of the emergence of synonyms
It is also important to find out how and when these words arose in our speech. This will help in more detail and comprehensively reveal the question of what a synonym is.
It should be noted that synonyms appeared and appear in our speech constantly. This is an absolutely continuous and endless process.
There are several ways (variants) of enriching the language with new synonyms:
- The process of consolidation (combination) of language, the crossing of different dialects and sub-dialects. As in every dialect to this phenomena and objects could be named differently, if they are mixed could be different designations of the same things.
- The words-synonyms can penetrate from one language to another (especially if we are talking about related, close languages). So there were different Slavicisms.
- The development of mankind, the improvement of production also contributes to the emergence of new words-synonyms.
What is a synonym? Examples
Thus, there are several ways of forming these words. Now it is necessary to find out as much as possible specifically what a synonym is. Examples of such words you can read below:
- nouns: village - village; the world is the universe; holiday - celebration, etc .;
- adjectives: brave - bold; spoiled - disfigured; scarlet - crimson, drunk - not drunk, etc .;
- verbs: walk - march; To take offense - to sulk and others;
- adverbs: broad - spacious; fresh - cool; fun - joyful, etc.
The main types of words-synonyms
The words-synonyms are classified according to different criteria: by the designated subject, by the etymological sign; if possible, in a particular style of speech, and so on. There are several types of synonyms:
- morphological synonyms are different forms of a word expressing the same concept. Here, for example, literary and dialect variants of words can be presented;
- syntactic synonyms are words and constructions used to express the same thought;
- synonyms are the formation of new words by adding prefixes or suffixes, for example: wrote - written;
- phraseological synonyms - these are different phraseological units, denoting the same concept: "in the head - not all at home" - "without a king in the head", etc .;
- ideographic synonyms are words-synonyms, which differ from each other by semantic meanings. For example: surprise - hit; known - outstanding;
- stylistic synonyms are synonyms that are used depending on the style of speech. They can include literary (book) and colloquial. For example: die - bent; daughter - daughter; irresponsibility - hack.
Synonyms and antonyms
Speaking of the words-synonyms, one can not fail to mention such a concept as "antonyms". What it is?
The term comes from two Greek words: “αντί” – against and “όνομα” – name. Name two antonyms words that are opposite of each other meaning and different spelling. Here are some examples of words-antonyms: warm – cold, evil – good, fly – dropping, brave – cowardly, easily – hard, sick and well, to forget – to remember, sad – happy, black – white, etc.
It should be noted that the antonyms are most often characteristic of parts of speech such as adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Antonyms can combine only those pairs of words that contain radically opposite meanings. At the same time, any such pair of antonyms should be based on any unifying qualitative attribute. Two words that refer to different parts of speech, can not be called antonyms.
So we figured out what a synonym is. Now you know the important role played by words-synonyms in our speech. They not only give the opportunity to express their thoughts as accurately as possible. They also enrich and adorn our language. Moreover, this process is continuous.