Among most of the Humanities, special attention should be paid to linguistics. This science has a great impact on the life of each of us, and some of its sections are studied not only in universities but also in schools.
Let's talk about what linguistics is, and what its main sections are.
Definition of linguistics
Linguistics – the scientific study of language, its development, phenomena that comprise a particular language elements and units. The term derives from Latin lingua “tongue.” Synonymous with the is considered native Russian linguistics the term linguistics.
Most linguistic disciplines studied at universities in the faculties of Philology, and the basics of linguistics we learn in elementary school on the lessons of Russian and foreign languages.
Classical sections of linguistics
So, we found out what linguistics, and can now talk about its main sections. Basic or classic topics of linguistics, with which each of us meets throughout the school are phonology, graphics, morphology, syntax, lexicology and phraseology, and stylistics.
The study of any language begins with the phonetics and graphics.
Phonetics – a branch of linguistics that studies the sound structure of language, sounds, and syllables. Graphics also deals with the study of letters and their sounds.
The next section of linguistics, which is introduced in school – grammar. It is the science that studies the structure of the language. Consists of two sections: morphology and syntax. Morphology studies the parts of speech of the language and their word-formation and inflection. The syntax also examines phrases and sentences. Note that syntax is closely related to the punctuation, which studies rules for the use of punctuation marks.
Periodically in the course of language learning the students are studying and other topics of linguistics: lexicology and phraseology, stylistics.
Lexicology is the science that studies vocabulary of language, establishing the meaning of words, rules of their use. In lexicology deals with the synonyms and antonyms, paronyms, lexical structure of the language of origin, social use.
Phraseology – section, which studies idioms, i.e. expressions of a language.
Stylistics is the study of speech styles and means of linguistic expression. In school, students constantly get acquainted with the artistic and journalistic, scholarly, epistolary styles of the language. Learn not only learn them but to create their own texts in a particular style.
Upon entering the university for the Faculty of Philology, students continue their acquaintance with linguistics, learn what linguistics is and how many sections and sciences it actually contains.
So, linguistics is divided into theoretical, which deals with problems of linguistic models, and applied, aimed at finding solutions to practical problems related to the study of language and its use in other fields of knowledge. Besides, there are practical linguistics, dealing with transfer and knowledge of the language.
To theoretical linguistics include the above mentioned topics of linguistics such as morphology and syntax, lexicology, stylistics and others.
Applied sections of linguistics
To applied topics of linguistics are cognitive linguistics, dialectology and language history, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, ethnolinguistics, lexicography, linguistics, terminology, pereodevanie, computational linguistics.
Each of these sections deals with the study of a particular sphere of language use.
Thus, ethnolinguistic studies the language in its connection with the culture of the people.
Psycholinguistics is a science at the junction of psychology and linguistics. She studies the relationship of language, thinking and consciousness.
Cognitive linguistics deals with the linkages between language and mental activity of man, his awareness and memory, perception of language.
Computational linguistics deals with problems of machine translation, automatic text recognition, information retrieval, and even linguistic expertise.
Quite interesting and lexicography - the science involved in the compilation of dictionaries.
The history of a language is concerned with the study of the development of a language, and another linguistic discipline, dialectology, essentially helps it.
As you can see, this is not a complete list of topics and disciplines which examines modern linguistics. Every year there are new linguistic disciplines, study new language the problems associated with the development and improvement of the language.
Linguistics – the science dealing with the study languages and their structure. It has many language sections, and with each passing year they are becoming more and more. With some linguistic disciplines we learn in another school, but the majority of them studied at the philological faculties.
Now you know what is linguistics and what are the main sections it has.