Among most of the humanities, special attention should be paid to linguistics. This science has a great influence on the life of each of us, and its individual sections are studied not only in universities but also in schools.
Let's talk about what is linguistics, and what are its main sections.
Definition of linguistics
Linguistics is a science that studies the language, its development, phenomena that make up one or another language elements and units. The term comes from the Latin lingua - "language." The synonym of linguistics is the originally Russian term for linguistics.
Most of the linguistic disciplines are studied in universities at philological faculties, and we learn about the basics of linguistics even in elementary school in the lessons of Russian and foreign languages.
Classical sections of linguistics
So, we have found out what linguistics is, and now we can talk about its main sections. The main or classical sections of linguistics, with which each of us gets acquainted during the whole schooling, are phonetics, graphics, morphology, syntax, lexicology and phraseology, as well as stylistics.
Learning any language begins with phonetics and graphics.
Phonetics is a section of linguistics that studies the sound structure of the language, sounds and syllables. Graphics is engaged in the study of letters and their relationship with sounds.
The next section of linguistics, which we learn in school, is grammar. It is a science that studies the structure of language. It consists of two sections: morphology and syntax. Morphology studies the parts of speech of the language and their word formation and inflection. The syntax is also studying phrases and sentences. Note that the syntax is closely related to punctuation, which studies the rules for the use of punctuation marks.
Periodically in the course of studying the language schoolchildren also study other sections of linguistics: lexicology and phraseology, stylistics.
Lexicology is a science that learns the vocabulary of a language, which establishes the meaning of words, the norms of their use. In lexicology synonyms and antonyms, paronyms, lexical composition of language by origin, social use are considered.
Phraseology is a section that studies phraseological units, that is, stable expressions of a particular language.
Stylistics - the science of speech styles and means of linguistic expressiveness. At school pupils are constantly acquainted with the artistic and journalistic, scientific, epistolary styles of language. They learn not only to recognize them, but also to create their own texts in this or that style.
Upon admission to the university at the Faculty of Philology, students continue their acquaintance with linguistics, learn what linguistics is and how many sections and sciences it contains in itself.
Thus, linguistics is divided into theoretical, which deals with the problems of linguistic models, and applied, aimed at finding solutions to practical problems associated with the study of language and its use in other areas of knowledge. In addition, there are practical linguistics dealing with the problems of transmission and cognition of the language.
Theoretical linguistics includes previously mentioned sections of linguistics, such as morphology and syntax, lexicology, stylistics, and others.
Applied sections of linguistics
Applied sections of linguistics include cognitive linguistics, dialectology and language history, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, ethnolinguistics, lexicography, linguodidactics, terminology, translation, computer linguistics.
Each of these sections deals with the study of one or another sphere of the language, its application.
Thus, ethnolinguistics studies the language in its connection with the culture of the people.
Psycholinguistics is a science at the junction of psychology and linguistics. She studies the relationship of language, thinking and consciousness.
Cognitive linguistics deals with the establishment of connections between the language and the mental activity of a person, his attention and memory, and the perception of language.
Computer linguistics deals with problems of machine translation, automatic text recognition, information retrieval and even linguistic expertise.
Quite interesting and lexicography - the science of compiling dictionaries.
The history of the language studies the development of language, and in this it is helped by another linguistic discipline - dialectology.
As you can see, this is not a complete list of sections and disciplines that modern linguistics studies. Every year new linguistic disciplines appear, new language problems are studied, related to the development and improvement of the language.
Linguistics is a science that deals with the study of languages and their structure. It has many language sections, and every year they become more and more. With some linguistic disciplines, we are acquainted even on the school bench, but most of their mass is studied at the philological faculties.
Now you know what linguistics is and from which main sections it consists.