It is widely believed that the grammar of the language is better perceived if it is mastered by textbooks compiled in the native language. This position is argued by the fact that, for example, a Russian-language compiler better understands the needs of a Russian-speaking student and submits material from the point of view of the most difficult moments in the understanding of which difficulties often arise.

What is the grammar of the language? Table, scheme, Theory of X-bar

However, what is grammar? This is the logic of the language, which is combined in the rules. And adjusting the logic of another language for their linguistic and cultural characteristics can only exacerbate the matter. There are similar moments, but there are situations that have no analogues, but the emphasis on doing this is not necessary. If in the course of mastering the material the student himself will notice the generality or regularities in differences, this will be a post factum. If to him to present this knowingly as transferable units of the grammatical terms of the native language, his psychoanalytical system will at first start another unnecessary and useless bridge of transliteration, which is often the cause of the linguistic and cultural barrier. Often these are non-transferable units, between which either a false parallel is made, or they are expressed through unjustifiably complex terms.

Indirect similarity of languages

The key to associating the two languages ​​lies in their common origin, or - in a broader sense - in a similar way of thinking people. But this does not mean that even similar structures are absolutely equivalent, because, firstly, the removal of terms from the mother tongue took place in an arbitrary order, and not always identical, and secondly, the languages ​​independently developed over the centuries. What is the grammar of modern English?

Logic of English sentences

Sentence (sentence) consists of at least one main clause (a phrase with a finite verb, a full verb). Equivalent clauses form compound sentences, unequal complex sentences, including the main clause and the depended clause. A depended clause can include non-finite verb, that is, a "non-conscientious" verb, for example, participle or gerund.

Although the grammar of English rules that there must necessarily be a subject in sentences, it is often omitted. Thus, the main indicator of the availability of a proposal is the presence of at least a rema (rhema), even if only one member of the proposal holds. This is what distinguishes it from the phrase, that is, the usual combination of words. An example of a monosyllabic sentence is some exclamations: Excellent!

English grammar provides a standard word order, but there are many exceptions and different types of inversions, so the most convenient and modern version of the syntax is probably the X-bar theory, see below.

Relationship of members of the proposal

At least one verb is present in the structure of the predicate. If in its composition there are no other parts of speech, it is called a verbal; the semantic component expressed by a noun, an adjective, etc., is called a nominal part (predicative expression). In the full version, the predicate describes two argument members (arguments) - the subject and the complement.

What is the grammar of arguments? In English, additions are called verb complement (or second verb complement). If, speaking of semantics, the subject plays, rather, the role of the complement, but stands in its usual position before the predicate and is consistent with the verb in the person and number, then, although the grammar does not change, in English it is called a logic object (logical addition) why in the grammatical sense it does not cease to be a subject. In the event that the semantically complement is a full agent, it is usually called a logic subject.

The line between a part of the compound predicate and the complement is sometimes very difficult to distinguish. According to modern linguistic tendencies, a verb is put at the head of the sentence, and the subject and complement are its arguments, that is, even their functions are sometimes inseparable, the difference lies only in the hierarchical leading position of the first.

Adverbial (circumstance), or adjunct, tells about the place, time, duration, validity, direction of action. Often it merges with verb complement, and it is possible to distinguish them from the criticality of availability in the context. Unlike verb complement, the circumstance can be removed without detriment to the usefulness of the action from the body of the narrative.

Attribute (definition), as a rule, refers to a noun or to another minor term, but tends to describe nominal phenomena, that is, it does not serve to supplement the meaning of the verb. It can be located anywhere in the text.

X-bar theory (Theory of Subordination)

The X-bar theory graphically displays what a grammar is in modern English, showing how words are combined into phrases and sentence members.

The scheme is built on the principle of a tree, where the key position is taken by the verb, and all other elements accrue to it, forming a complete structure.

Interesting: