The form of the word is the most important concept of the Russian language. It is judged on the grammatical meaning, variability or immutability of a lexical unit. Mistakes in the form of words are not uncommon: someone confuses it with a single-root word, someone does not know how the initial form is formed, and someone does not know how to change it.
Virtually every part of speech is peculiar to change. Thus, the verb has the forms of tense, number or person; noun, adjective, pronoun vary in cases and numbers. All these meanings are enclosed in a word form. The desired form of the word is realized through the ending (flexion). Here we should introduce one more concept: the paradigm is a chain of word forms.
For example, when you change the verbsolve at times (i decide - I decide - I will decide) endings change. The same thing happens when you change it on the faces:decide - decide - decide; and numbers:decide - decide, decide - decide, decide - decide.
Now take for example the nominal part of speech - the nounday. Change it according to cases (take not all, only three):day (nominative),of the day (genitive),in the afternoon (instrumental),about the bottom (prepositional). Now by the numbers:day (unit) -days (pl.).
The adjective, except for changes in cases and numbers, can be changed by gender:beautiful table - beautiful furniture - beautiful panel .
Knowing what a form of a word is, it can be said that it stands in a certain case, refers to a particular declension or conjugation, person or number. Through this concept, the word is implemented grammatically.
For example, in the sentenceThe boat set sail from the steep bank wordset sail has the form of past tense, feminine gender, singular, therefore, it is a verb. At the end we can say that the word is feminine. Now look at the wordshores. It answers the questionwhat? therefore, is a noun. In addition, you can determine the case (genitive), the number (single), gender (male) and declination (second).
Another concept of the Russian language is the initial form of the word. This is the fixed grammatical layout of the lexeme. So it is recorded in the dictionaries. It is noteworthy that in the parts of speech these characteristics are different.
Noun - nominative, singular(stump, listener, book, phone, cloud) .
Adjective - nominative, singular, masculine(wooden, oak, tea, magnificent).
The numeral, if it is quantitative, must be in the nominative case(twenty, six, one hundred forty one). ordinal, analogous to adjective in the masculine gender, in the singular, nominative case(twentieth, sixth, one hundred forty first ).
The initial form of a pronoun depends on its category. It is no secret that these parts of speech are divided according to which part of the speech. Therefore, for pronouns-nouns it will be a noun form, similarly for pronouns-adjectives and numerals. The exception is a pronoun that does not have a nominative case:yourself, yourself .
The verb is an infinitive, that is, an indefinite form in which questions are posedwhat to do? what to do. (sew, wash, have, sit down, blow up, smile).
As regards participles, their initial form is determined according to the definition. Unfortunately, this is a rather controversial part of speech: some linguists distinguish it into a separate one, and then the initial form is the singular, nominative, masculine (dancing). But if you share the point of view of scientists who consider the participle to be only a form of a verb, then the initial form should be the infinitive.(dance) .
Separate from all in this matter are the unchanging parts of speech - the verbal adverb and adverb. What is the shape of the word? This is his change. Accordingly, these words of this characteristic do not have:quickly, doubly, hotly, drawing, carried away. A reservation should be made here, as in the previous paragraph: if the verbal adverb is positioned as a verb form, then its initial form will be infinitive:drawing - drawing .
Form and singular word
It is necessary to understand what a form of a word is, speaking about single-root words. The latter are formed with the help of word-forming morphemes: a prefix or a suffix. Only the ending is involved in changing the word form.
For example, we give the wordperson. Changing its shape:man - man - man - man - about man. Words differ only in flakes. The lexical meaning is unchanged. Now we will pick up single words:man, humanization, humanity. These words already have different lexical meanings and differ from each other in the presence of suffixes and prefixes (humanization).
In the Russian language there are special cases, called “lack of freedom” of forms - this is a phenomenon in which it is impossible to make a completely formative chain.
For example, by the waypoker Difficult to choose the plural form of the adjectivesteal It is impossible to form the passive participle of an imperfect species according to the principledraw - draw. Knowing what the form of the word and its chain, you will avoid errors in this matter.