The form of the word is the most important concept of the Russian language. It judges the grammatical meaning, variability or immutability of a lexical unit. Errors in the form of words are not uncommon: someone confuses it with a root word, someone does not know how the initial form is formed, and someone does not know how to change it.
Definition of concept
Practically every part of speech is peculiar to change. Thus, the verb has the form of time, number or person; noun, adjective, pronoun vary in case and number. All these meanings are contained in the word form. The desired form of the word is realized through the ending (inflexion). Here we need to introduce one more concept: a paradigm is a chain of word forms.
For example, when a verb is changeddecide on occasion (i decide - I decided - I will decide) endings are changed. The same thing happens when you change it by face:decide - decide - decide; and numbers:decide - decide, decide - decide, decide - decide.
Now let's take for example the nominal part of the speech - the nounday. Let us change it by case (we take not all, only three):day (nominative),the day (genitive),afternoon (instrumental),about the day (prepositional). Now by the numbers:day (singular) -days (plural).
Adjective, except for changes in cases and numbers, it is possible to change by birth:beautiful table - beautiful furniture - beautiful panel .
Knowing what the form of a word is, one can say that it stands in a definite case, refers to one or another declension or conjugation, a person or number. Through this concept the word is realized grammatically.
For example, in the sentenceThe boat sailed from the steep bank wordset sail has the form of the past tense, feminine, singular, hence, it is a verb. At the end we can say that the word is feminine. Now look at the wordshores. It answers the questionwhat ?, hence, is a noun. In addition, you can determine the case (genitive), number (single), gender (male) and declination (second).
Another concept of the Russian language is the initial form of the word. This is the fixed grammatical form of the lexeme. So it is fixed in dictionaries. It is noteworthy that in speech parts these characteristics are different.
Noun - nominative, singular(stump, listener, book, phone, cloud) .
Adjective - nominative, singular, masculine(wooden, oak, tea, gorgeous).
The numeral, if it is quantitative, must stand in the nominative case(twenty, six, one hundred forty-one). ordinal, the same as the adjective in the masculine gender, in the singular, the nominative(twentieth, sixth, one hundred forty-first ).
The initial form of the word-pronoun depends on its rank. It's no secret that these parts of speech are divided depending on which part of the speech they gravitate. Therefore for pronouns-nouns this will be a form of a noun, similarly for pronouns-adjectives and numerals. The exception is a pronoun that does not have the nominative case:yourself, yourself, yourself .
A verb is an infinitive, that is, an undefined form, where questions are posedwhat to do? what to do. (sew, wash, have, sit, blow, smile).
As for the participles, the initial form is defined according to the definition. Unfortunately, this is a rather controversial part of the speech: some linguists separate it into a separate one, and then the initial form is the only number, nominative, masculine (dancing). But if you share the point of view of scientists who consider participle only as a form of the verb, then as an initial form it is necessary to indicate the infinitive(dance) .
A separate from all in this matter are the unchangeable parts of speech - the gerund and the adverb. What is the form of a word? This is his change. Accordingly, these words do not have this characteristic:quickly, doubly, hotly, drawing, carried away. Here we should make a reservation, as in the previous paragraph: if the gerundive is positioned as a verbal form, then its initial form will be an infinitive:drawing - drawing .
Shape and root word
It should be understood that such a form of a word, speaking of one-root words. The latter are formed with the help of word-building morphemes: prefixes or suffixes. In the change of the word form, only the ending takes part.
For an example, we give the wordhuman. Change its shape:man-man-man-man-man-about man. Words differ only in inflections. Lexical meaning is unchanged. Now pick up the root words:man, humanization, humanity. These words already have different lexical meanings and differ from each other by the presence of suffixes and prefixes (humanization).
In Russian there are special cases, called "lack of freedom" of forms - this is a phenomenon in which a completely form-forming chain can not be made up.
For example, to the wordpoker it is difficult to choose the plural form, from the adjectivesteal It is impossible to form a passive participle of an imperfect species according to the principledraw - drawn. Knowing what the form of the word and its chain are, you will avoid making mistakes in this matter.