Everything on the planet has its own frequency. According to one of the versions, it even forms the basis of our world. Alas, the theory is very complex to expound it within the framework of one publication, therefore we will only consider the oscillation frequency as an independent action. Within the framework of the article, definitions will be given to this physical process, its measurement units and the metrological component. And in the end an example of the importance of ordinary sound in ordinary life will be considered. We learn what it is and what its nature is.
What is the frequency of oscillations?
By this is meant the physical quantity that is used to characterize the periodic process, which is equal to the number of repetitions or occurrences of certain events per one unit of time. This indicator is calculated as the ratio of the number of these incidents to the time interval for which they were committed. The own frequency of oscillation is in every element of the world. The body, atom, road bridge, train, plane - they all make certain movements, which are called so. Let these processes are not visible to the eye, they are. Units of measurements, in which the frequency of oscillations is considered, are hertz. They received their name in honor of a German physicist Henry Hertz.
The periodic signal can be characterized by an instantaneous frequency, which, to within a coefficient, is the rate of phase change. It can be represented as a sum of harmonic spectral components that have their own constant oscillations.
Cyclic oscillation frequency
It is convenient to use it in theoretical physics, especially in the section on electromagnetism. The cyclic frequency (also called radial, circular, angular) is a physical quantity that is used to indicate the intensity of the origin of the vibrational or rotational motion. The first is expressed in revolutions or oscillations per second. In the case of rotational motion, the frequency is equal to the modulus of the angular velocity vector.
This expression is expressed in radians for one second. The dimension of the cyclic frequency is inverse time. In numerical terms, it equals the number of oscillations or revolutions that occurred over the number of seconds 2π. Its introduction for use makes it possible to greatly simplify the various spectrum of formulas in electronics and theoretical physics. The most popular example of use is the calculation of the resonant cyclic frequency of the LC oscillation circuit. Other formulas can be significantly complicated.
Frequency of discrete events
By this value is meant a value that is equal to the number of discrete events that occur in one unit of time. In theory, usually used indicator - second to minus the first degree. In practice, to express the frequency of pulses, the hertz is usually used.
Under her understand a physical quantity that equals the number of complete rotations that occur per unit time. It also employs the rate – second in minus first degrees. To denote the work done can use phrases such as revolution per minute, hour, day, month, year and others.
But what about manufacturing? For them, arbitrary values were fixed: kilo cycle, megacycle per second and so on. Therefore, picking up a device that works with the indicator in GHz (as a computer processor), you can roughly imagine how many actions it performs. It would seem that time is passing for a person. But technology for the same period has time to perform millions and even billions of operations per second. In one hour the computer does so many things that most people will not even be able to imagine them in numerical terms.
The frequency of oscillations has found its application even in metrology. Different devices have many functions:
- Measure the pulse frequency. They are represented by electron-counting and condenser types.
- Determine the frequency of the spectral components. There are heterodyne and resonant types.
- Produce a spectrum analysis.
- Reproduce the desired frequency with desired accuracy. This can be a variety of measures: standards, synthesizers, signal generators and other equipment in this direction.
- Compare the measured oscillations, for this purpose use a comparator or an oscilloscope.
Example of work: sound
All of the above written can be quite difficult to understand, because we used the dry language of physics. To understand this information, you can give an example. In it everything will be detailed, based on the analysis of cases from modern life. For this, let us consider the most well-known example of oscillations-sound. Its properties, as well as the peculiarities of the realization of mechanical elastic vibrations in the medium, are directly proportional to the frequency.
The human organs of hearing can catch fluctuations, which are in the range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. And with age, the upper limit will gradually decline. If the frequency of sound oscillations falls below the value of 20 Hz (which corresponds to subcontracts), infrasound will be created. This type, which in most cases is not heard by us, people can still feel it tactile. When the boundary is exceeded in 20 kilohertz, oscillations are generated, which are called ultrasound. If the frequency exceeds 1 GHz, then in this case we will deal with hypersound. If you consider a musical instrument such as a piano, then it can create oscillations in the range from 27.5 Hz to 4186 Hz. In this case, it should be borne in mind that the musical sound does not consist only of the fundamental frequency - it is also mixed with overtones, harmonics. This all together determines the timbre.
As you had the opportunity to learn, the frequency of oscillations is an extremely important component that allows us to function in our world. Thanks to her, we can hear, with her assistance, computers and many other useful things. But if the oscillation frequency exceeds the optimal limit, then certain destruction may start. So, if you affect the processor, so that its crystal works with twice as large indicators, then it will quickly fail.
This can also be done with human life, when at a high frequency his eardrums burst. Also there will be other negative changes with the body, which will entail certain problems, up to the death. And because of the nature of the physical nature of this process will stretch for a fairly long period of time. By the way, taking into account this factor, the military is considering new possibilities for developing weapons of the future.