The heart is the organ from which the human life and its quality depend on the uninterrupted work. That is why even small deviations from the norm should attract attention and alarm. What is bradycardia and how dangerous is it? What symptoms are typical for this pathology, consider below.
In a healthy person, the heart divisions gradually contract and relax, pump blood. Normally, the heart rate (heart rate) is 60 to 90 beats per minute. You can register this indicator by putting the clock with the second hand in front of you and simply calculating the pulse on the radial artery. Normally, it should be good filling and tension, uniform, that is, between the two beats should pass the same time. If the heart rhythm is disturbed, then this condition is called an arrhythmia. It can be of several kinds.
Types of arrhythmia
What is bradycardia and tachycardia? This question arises in those happy people who did not face heart disease closely. These are two polar rhythm disturbances. Tachycardia is called an increase in the number of heartbeats over a hundred beats per minute. There is another kind of arrhythmia - extrasystoles. It is characterized by premature contractions of the heart. Answering the question what is bradycardia, we can say that this reduction in the number of heartbeats to 55 and below. As a rule, such a rhythm disturbance at the early stages has no clinical signs and is found during a routine examination.
If you, having become interested in what a sinus bradycardia heart, and counting the pulse, found that it is below 50, do not panic and call an ambulance. In those people who engage in sports or manual labor, bradycardia is not uncommon. At the same time, they do not experience any unpleasant sensations, that is, the volume of blood flowing to the brain does not decrease. This is due to the fact that, due to a constant load, their respiratory and cardiovascular systems are more developed than in the average person. Thus, the question of what a bradycardia, loses relevance for them. The appearance of it in a healthy person is possible in a stressful situation, with severe fatigue and after a long stay in the cold or in hot and humid climates (or, for example, in a steam room). Moderate sinus bradycardia (what is it, we'll talk in more detail below) can be provoked by a tightly tightened tie or collar. Such conditions do not pose a threat to human health and do not require special treatment.
Bradycardia, due to inhibition of activity of the pacemaker
Understanding what bradycardia is and how dangerous it is, it should be mentioned that a pathological decrease in heart rate can be caused by several reasons. And one of them is the inhibition of the pacemaker. This is due to a decrease in the tone of the sympathetic nervous system or an increase in the excitation of the vagus nerve. In turn, the cause of these phenomena can be such humoral factors as high blood levels of bile acids, low levels of thyroid hormones. The development of a bradycardia in this case can provoke the following factors:
- vegetative-vascular dysfunction;
- high intracranial pressure;
- taking certain medications;
- high levels of potassium in the blood;
- infectious diseases.
Decreased rhythm due to blockades
Talking about what a bradycardia, it is necessary to note the following: its cause can be a cardiac blockade (impaired transmission of the impulse to various departments of the body). In this case, it can be sinoauricular. There is a violation of impulse transmission at the atrium, when the currents are transferred from the sinus node to the myocardium through the time. It can also be atrioventricular. In this case, impaired transmission of the pulse occurs through the ventricles? and some of their contractions simply drop out of the rhythm of the heart. In the development of such blockades, three degrees are distinguished. At the first, there is a slight decrease in the rate of transfer of the pulse to the ventricles, at the second - not all of them reach, and at the third there is a decrease in the number of contractions, caused by blockade of the conducting system.
Symptoms of bradycardia
Well, we finally got to the point. Answer the title question: “Sinus bradycardia – what is it and what are her symptoms?” It should be noted that in most cases, this pathology goes unnoticed and is found incidentally, during routine inspections. Only when the transition in the chronic form the disease begins to actively Express themselves. This is due to the fact that the decline rate decreases and blood volume and also the amount of oxygen and glucose flowing to the brain. In the early stages of the disease is manifested by weakness, dizziness, cold sweat. Disturbed sleep and memory. Patients complain of anxiety, fading heart, shortness of breath. Despite the apparent insignificance of the symptoms, in order to understand sinus bradycardia — what is it and what is the real danger she represents is enough to consider the symptoms that appear when the process proceeds in the acute stage. Signs of cerebral hypoxia are pronounced heart failure. In addition, the patient can pursue pain in the heart (angina), darkening of the eyes, frequent moments of confusion (paleobiology). Severe bradycardia may be complicated by symptom, Morgagni-Adams-Stokes. It is manifested by loss of consciousness, sudden pallor, irregular breathing, convulsions. You must remember that if the interval between contractions of the ventricles exceeds 15 seconds, possible cardiac arrest and clinical death.
Moderate bradycardia is considered if the heart rate ranges from 55 to 45 beats per minute. As a rule, it is asymptomatic or manifests small vegetative disorders. The cause of it most often becomes an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve, which is responsible for the contractile function of the heart. Clinically mild bradycardia can be manifested by increased fatigue, dizziness, dyspnea.
Bradycardia in children: causes
Sadly, this disease can occur at any age, and quite often the diagnosis is "sinus bradycardia" in children. What is it in adults, we disassembled, but in small patients the pathology will have slightly different criteria. The heart of the child beats more often, so the indicators change. You can diagnose bradycardia in children in the following cases:
- if the heart rate of a newborn baby is less than 100 beats per minute;
- in children from one year to six years - less than 70;
- in adolescents - from 60 and below.
As a rule, such deviations from the normal rhythm, even if they have no external manifestations, lead to nothing good, and in the future can lead to the development of many pathological conditions. Therefore, the faster the bradycardia is detected, its cause is determined and treatment is prescribed, the greater the chance of avoiding complications that can cause brain hypoxia. The causes that caused this pathology are also different. Often it can be caused by such usual things as breath holding, fear or impressions, accumulated during the day (many children have palpitations in the evening an order of magnitude lower than in the mornings). In addition, bradycardia can cause:
- neurosis, endocrine disorders in adolescents;
- fetal hypoxia;
- increased intracranial pressure;
- infectious diseases;
- fast growth;
- lead poisoning, nicotine;
Symptoms of bradycardia in children
During this disease, we can distinguish three stages of development. If the first bradycardia appears only a minor deterioration in health and can be determined only through laboratory diagnosis, then in the second stage of its manifestation is already more pronounced. It is possible to suspect this pathology in the child if he makes the following complaints:
- lethargy, fatigue, dizziness;
- decreased appetite;
- difficulty breathing, shortness of breath;
- cold sweat, loss of consciousness;
- pain in the chest, slow pulse;
- pressure jumps.
Despite all these symptoms, moderate bradycardia does not pose a threat to the life of the child and is treated perfectly. However, the third stage of the disease can cause serious pathological changes both in the myocardium and in other organs and have very serious consequences, up to a lethal outcome. That is why it is important to detect the bradycardia in time and start its treatment.
Treatment of bradycardia
What is bradycardia and how to treat it? These questions become vital for those to whom such a diagnosis was made. It should be noted that this pathology refers to those diseases that require drug therapy only in the case of severe clinical manifestations. If you were diagnosed with such a diagnosis, but there are no special abnormalities in the vital activity of the body, treatment is not carried out. If the patient's condition worsens, frequent fainting, dizziness, increased symptoms of heart failure, therapy consists of taking one of the following drugs:
- "Atropine" - after three hours intravenously 2 milligrams or subcutaneously at 0.5-1.0 milligrams;
- "Isoproterenol" - intravenously-drip to 4 milligrams;
- "Alupent" - infusion (10 milligrams per 500 milliliters of saline solution);
- extracts of Eleutherococcus or Ginseng;
- preparations krasavki.
In severe conditions, treatment is performed in a hospital setting and is aimed at stabilizing hemodynamics and eliminating the causes of bradycardia. The dose of medicinal substances is determined by the doctor for each patient individually.
In cases where bradycardia is associated with the natural aging process or it cannot be stabilized with medical therapy, prescribed pacing. The indications for this intervention is a decrease in the heart rate of 30-40 beats per minute, frequent loss of consciousness, symptoms of MAS, signs of heart failure. The procedure is performed using a probe which, through the subclavian vein is injected into the cavity of the heart. The cardioversion may be held as temporary (acute violations) and permanent. Constantly the procedure is carried out with the help of the pacemaker. Contemporary models represent device, the size of which is not more than a wristwatch and weighs less than 100 grams. Under local anesthesia it is implanted just below the collarbone. Due to this the patient gets the possibility to simulate the heart rhythm. For example, at a constant bradycardia the device also runs continuously, but if it has a transient nature, the pacemaker is switched on only during the attack, and after it turns off. In addition, now there are rhythm-adaptive stimulators, is able to increase heart rate with increased physical activity. Thus, the patient gets an opportunity to forget about what is bradycardia.
Modern medicine is able to withstand many dangerous diseases. But, despite all its possibilities, the pathologies of the heart rank first in terms of mortality. To avoid such a sad outcome, take a closer look at your health. Eliminate bad habits, and if you feel unwell - do not delay the visit to the doctor. Then the question of how the bradycardia manifests, what it is and how to treat this disease, will lose relevance for you.