Based on the size of the participation of commercial banks in international settlements, three forms of the latter are singled out. The first is a bank transfer, it implies a minimum participation of commercial banks (payment order execution). More significant participation is observed in the second form - collection (monitoring of the presentation of documents of title by means of transfer, their issuance to the supplier on the basis of instructions of the principal). The third form implies the maximum participation of commercial banks - a letter of credit (the submission of a payment order to the beneficiary, which is realized in the course of the latter's fulfillment of the main conditions prescribed in the letter of credit).
Obviously, the export security is increasing: the minimum value for a bank transfer is charged for actually shipped goods, and the maximum for a letter of credit, which is a monetary guarantee of timely payment by the bank of the delivered goods to the person who opened the letter of credit.
Bank transfer, as well as other forms, is carried out in a non-cash form, more precisely by means of a payment order addressed to one bank by another, and commodity distribution documents (transport, bills, etc.) are sent directly to the importer from the exporter, bypassing the banks.
Specificity of this type of translation
Bank transfer is a convenient inexpensive way of transferring money both in national currency and in foreign. The sender enters the recipient's information, bank details of his bank.
Banks introduce new schemes of shipments (banking) in the course of competition, their main criteria - tariffs, speed of transfer.
In this area there are companies that are very popular is because of the advancement of their brand, for example, Western Union, with its extensive network of cash collection points, not inferior to the functionality criterion of the famous companies.
Transfers of individuals
For this category of citizens, the bank transfer of money is very attractive, it functions without any additional agreement (agency), which charges operator, for example, "Aval Express".
Urgent transfers have an alternative - forwarding with mandatory account opening. In the absence of urgency and the availability of a significant amount of money, the best option is to open a personal current bank account, then transfer the funds to the account of the recipient.
Bank transfer can be made without opening an account, through crediting to a bank account, in cash.
Without opening a current account you can send money as his own name and in the name of another. Economic relationship between 2 entities supported by different forms of payments (Bank). In order to conduct customer payments between banks can be defined a contract for the implementation of letters of credit, collection, and other operations.
Direct bank transfers
Immediate correspondent relationships between banks have the form of a contract between a certain number of credit institutions, they allow direct transfers (without the participation of a cash settlement center).
Export international bank transfer means the transfer of funds for the export of goods and services by means of a foreign person, specifying the method of reimbursing the required amount for payment to the bank.
The choice of the variety of monetary administration in VTK is established by the parties to the agreement. During the Bank transfer the banks are not responsible for the services (shipment of goods, transfer of documents), due to which translation is practiced under the condition of uncertain market relations in the country.
Participants in the bank transfer in question
- The Reporter - the person who issues the first payment order in the process of credit transfer.
- Beneficiary – the person indicated in the payment order as a recipient of funds by the end of the credit transfer.
- Bank of recipient - the one that accepts the payment order.
- Intermediary bank - any receiving bank that is not the bank of the originator, the beneficiary.
Bank transfer to the account
If you think about it, we encounter it very often. Payment for mobile communications, utilities, the Internet, all kinds of courses - this is the payment by bank transfer. In fact, sending a transfer to an individual looks the same. To do this, you must fill out the form, indicate in it the name of the beneficiary's bank, the 20-digit account number of the correspondent bank, the passport data of the addressee. In case of transfer to the beneficiary's account, it is additionally necessary to indicate the number of his account or card (if transferring money to a bank card).
Additionally may have a Bank SWIFT code, there is a translation. Information on it can be found in the Bank.
You can do it in two ways - using either a bank transfer in cash through the bank's cash desk or from a personal account. It is clear that for this operation the bank charges a commission, its size depends on the border of the transfer (at home or abroad), currency. It can be fixed - 10-25 US dollars regardless of the amount of transfer, as a percentage of the transferred amount (0.5-2%), mixed (flat rate and a small percentage).
The term of the transfer depends on the number of intermediary banks through which the transfer will be made, for example, in the capital or Berlin, the funds will reach a couple of days, but in the Russian outback - at least a week.
So, we learned that there are 2 ways to send money in this aspect:
- Bank transfer in cash.
- From an individual account.
Bank transfer settlements
We have already mentioned the definition of the concept in question. Recall that an international bank transfer is a form of settlement conducted in accordance with a contract on the basis of which the transferor bank carries out a transfer to the beneficiary's bank in favor of the latter on behalf of and on behalf of the bank (in the name of the bank). instructions).
This is a community of interbank financial telecommunications (worldwide). This system of bank transfers is an international organization in the field of financial telecommunications, the main activities of which are as follows:
- providing reliable, confidential, prompt, efficient, protected from unauthorized access telecommunications banking
- carrying out of measures on standardization of methods, forms of an exchange фиинформацией.
How to implement the translation in question?
Bank transfer operation includes:
- The exporter transfers the required package of documents in accordance with the concluded contract, the importer.
- The other side - the importer - submits a payment order to his bank.
- The Bank of the importer sends the order regarding the listing of a certain amount to the exporter to the Bank correspondent.
- Latest transfer the funds, taking them from the correspondent account of the Bank of the importer, the exporter's Bank.
- The Bank serving the exporter shall credit the accepted funds are already on account of the exporter, and then advises him of the receipt of specific sums of money.
Application as a document on payment and banking operations
Application for bank transfer (in other words, instructions for conducting a bank transfer) is a special document in which the client asks for the transfer of the relevant amount of money to the account of the transferee's accounts (the encashed documents).
Structure of the application for bank transfer
In it the originator indicates the following data:
- full (decipherable) name of the payer;
- number of the debited bank account;
- the code of the amount, currency of payment;
- the deciphered name of the beneficiary, his account number;
- name, number, date of the document on the basis of which payment is made;
- a person who bears the costs of the transfer (postal, telephone costs, bank commission);
- purpose, purpose of the transfer (the name of the goods, services that are paid for by this transfer).
If the amount of payment in the currency of the other party, and the payment itself has an excellent currency, the application specifies an exchange rate or a way of establishing this rate. This statement is signed by the head, chief accountant (their deputies), then sealed.
Banks that accept the execution of such statements when paying for this order, as a collection, follow the procedure strictly under the bill, it is a copy of the application (filed). In the case where the transfer involves also the payment of the goods which are imported into this document indicated and the timing of its delivery to Russia.
Legal features of transactions through bank transfers
Calculations with use of payment orders – form, which is quite often applied in property turnover. There are legal relationships in which the use of this form of payment is of a priority nature, for example in the relationship concerning the supply of goods, the buyer pays the delivered goods with observance of an established order, form of payment, provided that the supply agreement. When the agreement order, forms of payment are not fixed, they are made by payment orders.
The use of such a form of payment implies that the bank is obliged, on behalf of its payer, to transfer a specific amount from the funds in its account to the account of the person designated by the payer in that bank or another specified bank within the period provided by law. If the contract does not provide for a shorter period or is not established by the traditions of business turnover used in the practice of the bank, they are repelled from the established by law.