The language of any culture, including Russian, contains many devices for enriching speech. One of such methods includes the so-called speech figures. Since the volume of data on each of them goes far beyond the planned volume of the article, let us first consider one stylistic figure, vividly represented in expressive speech, for example, in verses. This is the so-called anaphora.
What is anaphora
This is a stylistic figure, which is translated from Greek literally as "ascent". Its essence is that similar or similar sounds, words or their combinations are repeated at the beginning of each parallel row. And if a little simpler, then as an example, you can take a poem, then the parallel rows will be just his lines, which, if talking about an anaphor, will begin in the same way.
In connection with the fact that in the formation of a given stylistic structure, sounds, words and whole phrases can be used, many different varieties of such phenomena as anaphora are distinguished.
So, sound anaphora to start. Consider this simple rhyme:
The grotesque is not intelligible. Oh my God.
The tombs are in a circle, in concrete.
Obviously, the combination of the sounds "gro" forms an anaphora. Then we observe a morphemic formation, when there is a repetition of a part of a word that has its own lexical meaning. For example, here is a small excerpt:
And stuff like that. As we see, “long”, being only a part of a word, nevertheless forms a quite meaningful lexical unit. And so it is possible to single out many more varieties of anaphor, the meaning, I think, the reader has already learned. Having answered the question of what anaphora is, we are moving forward in the stylistic education of our beloved “great and mighty”.
Since we started to analyze such an interesting phenomenon as rhythmic elements in a language, then in context we can refer to the antipode of the structure presented earlier. Consonant with the word "anaphora" - epiphora. We will discuss it in our linguistic study of the Greek language.
From the last this formation is translated as “bringing.” At the same time, it means all the same, only relatively to the end of the line in rhythmic repetition. For example, again, in a poem. Let's take a small etude by Marina Tsvetaeva in order not to make the reader bored:
We gave you beautiful sons like night
Beggars, like night, sons.
Epiphora, as a rhythmic structure, is much more in demand in a prosaic presentation than anaphora. Recall the famous Nietzschean "so preached insanity." Similar examples can be found in prose works of classics and not only. Continuing the conversation about stylistic figures, we can consider in the context of a couple more interesting types of them. And we will start with one, rather elusive, in ordinary language, with which, nevertheless, anaphora is also associated.
It is worth emphasizing that this stylistic figure refers rather to the field of rhetoric, since the reception itself, which, by the way, is translated from Latin as “turning over,” refers more to the language and its features. The so-called analytical languages, such as English, where the words in a sentence are arranged in accordance with the established norms, are not inclined to use inversion. But Russian and some others are another matter. There is no such definite order here, so mixing the words in a sentence leads to interesting phenomena, which are called, in essence, inversions. Thus, the definition of this term is a violation of the word order in a sentence in order to create expressive language. Characteristic of both poetry and prose.
When we discussed what anaphora is, we tended toward the rhythm of the language, and this unites the concepts under consideration. However, the place is the latter mostly in poetry. But inversions allow you to do really amazing effects, including in the use of prose. And finally, another stylistic figure of speech can be considered in context. It absorbs an incredible number of phenomena of any language, allowing you to get the most sophisticated semantic and figurative constructions using a living language.
Anaphora, being a vivid example of a figure, can be contrasted with a metaphor as a representative of so-called pathways. That is, the figurative meaning of words and expressions enters the scene. This is precisely the mechanism by which any language begins to play with all its bright facets, representing an excellent means for the expression of absolutely any fantasy. Anaphora, examples of which we briefly reviewed, in essence, is a means of creating rhythmics in a language. Metaphor also allows us to develop a language, make it brighter, richer, deeper, and so on. There are no limits for a language actively using metaphor as a means of self-development.
In general, a lot can be said about this tool separately. We recall only the main definition. Metaphor is the use of words or phrases in a figurative sense. In fact, it is a constant game of associations, which allows you to create the entire intricate structure of any language. Without metaphor, narrative language is dry and boring, and poetry without this tool is simply impossible to imagine. Therefore, all researchers emphasize its importance, relegating metaphor to a central place in the harmonious choir of the trails.
Thus, we were able to examine several of the most important stylistic figures of the language, to understand with examples what the anaphora is, how it is connected with other representatives of the figures, and even grasp the basic meaning of the most important representative of the trope.
The main conclusion at the end of this small journey into the world of linguistics is the fact that any cultural person should know not only what his native language consists of, but how you can use this wealth. Therefore, expanding your own education, you should think about how it can be applied. Then the language, and with it life, will be much more interesting, richer, deeper and more significant. We wish the reader to be not only literate, but also successful thanks to the knowledge gained.