The language of any culture, including Russian, contains many adaptations for enriching speech. One of these methods is the so-called figure of speech. Since the amount of data on each of them goes well beyond the planned volume of the article, we first consider one stylistic figure that is vividly represented in expressive speech, for example, in verse. It's about the so-called anaphora.
What is Anaphora
This stylistic figure, which from the Greek translates literally as "climbing". Its essence is that similar or similar sounds, words or their combinations are repeated at the beginning of each parallel series. And if a little easier, then as an example, you can take a poem, then the parallel rows will be just its lines, which, if the conversation about the anaphora, will begin somehow uniformly.
In connection with the fact that in the formation of this stylistic structure sounds, words and whole phrases can be used, many kinds of such phenomenon as anaphor are singled out.
So, the sound anaphor for the beginning. Consider this simple verse:
Grotesque is not intelligible. Oh my God.
Tombs in a circle, in concrete are dressed.
Obviously, the combination of "gro" sounds forms anaphora. Then we observe a morphemic formation, when there is a repetition of a part of a word having its own lexical purpose. For example, here's a short excerpt:
And all in that spirit. As we see, "long", being only a part of the word, nevertheless forms a quite meaningful lexical unit. And so you can distinguish many more varieties of anaphora, the meaning, I think, the reader has already learned. Answering the question what is an anaphora, we move forward in the stylistic formation of our beloved "great and mighty."
Since we began to analyze such an interesting phenomenon as the rhythmic elements in the language, in the context one can turn to the antipode of the previously presented structure. Consonant with the word "anaphora" is an epiphore. We will discuss this in our linguistic study of the Greek language.
From the latter, this education is translated as "bringing". This means it is all the same, only relative to the end of the line in rhythmic repetition. For example, again, in a poem. Take a small sketch performed by Marina Tsvetaeva, so as not to drive the reader into boredom:
We have given you beautiful sons, like the night,
Beggars, like the night, sons.
Epiphany, like a rhythmic structure, is much more in demand in a prosaic presentation than an anaphora. Let us recall the famous Nietzschean "so preached madness." Similar examples can be found in the prose works of the classics and not only. Continuing the conversation about stylistic figures, we can consider in the context of a couple of interesting types. And we will start with one, rather subtle in the usual language, with which, nevertheless, anaphora is also connected.
It is worth emphasizing that this stylistic figure refers more to the field of rhetoric, since the method itself, which, incidentally, is translated from Latin as "turning over", refers more to the language and its features. So-called analytical languages, like English, where the words in the sentence are arranged in accordance with established norms, are not inclined to use inversion. But Russian and some others are quite another matter. There is no such a certain order, so mixing words in a sentence leads to entertaining phenomena, which are called, in fact, inversions. Thus, the definition of this term is a violation of the order of words in the sentence in order to create expressiveness of the language. Characteristic for both poetry and prose.
When we discussed what an anaphor is, we tended to the rhythm of the language, and this unites the concepts under consideration. However, the latter is mostly in poetry. But the inversions allow you to make really amazing effects, including within the framework of using prose. And finally, one more stylistic figure of speech can be considered in context. It absorbs an incredible number of phenomena of any language, allowing you to get the most refined semantic and figurative structures with the help of a living language.
Anaphora, being a vivid example of a figure, can be contrasted with the metaphor as a representative of the so-called trails. That is, the portable meaning of words and expressions appears on the stage. This is precisely the mechanism by which any language begins to play with all its bright sides, representing a great tool for expressing absolutely any imagination. Anaphora, examples of which we briefly considered, in fact, is a means of creating rhythm in the language. Metaphor also allows you to develop the language, make it brighter, richer, deeper and so on. There are no limits for a language that actively uses the metaphor as a means of self-development.
In general, you can say a lot about this tool. We recall only the basic definition. A metaphor is the use of words or phrases in a figurative sense. In fact, this is a constant game of associations, which allows you to create the whole intricate structure of any language. Without metaphor, the narrative language is dry and boring, and poetry without this instrument is simply impossible to imagine. Therefore, its importance is emphasized by all researchers, giving the metaphor a central place in the harmonious chorus of paths.
Thus, we were able to consider several important stylistic figures of the language, to understand the examples of what an anaphor is, how it is related to other representatives of figures, and even to grasp the basic meaning of the most important representative of trails.
The main conclusion at the end of this small trip to the world of linguistics is the fact that any cultural person should know not only what his native language consists of, but also how this wealth can be used. Therefore, expanding your own education, you should think about how it can be applied. Then the language, and with it life, will be much more interesting, richer, deeper and more meaningful. We wish the reader to be not only literate, but also successful due to the knowledge gained.