From a wide variety of narrow medical specialties, in this article we will look at the activities of a doctor such as a pediatrician. After all, this profession has established itself in all developed countries as one of the most necessary and important, including a wide range of knowledge from various fields of medicine. We will describe the duties of a pediatrician and explain in which cases it is necessary to seek help from this specialist.
Pediatrics as a science
Translated from the Greek language, the term "pediatrics" is translated literally as "treatment of a child." Since the times of antiquity, healers of those years noted the features of the course of various diseases in children and their treatment. For many years, pediatrics has existed inherently in obstetrics. That is, doctors simultaneously took delivery and treated children.
The selection of science in a special direction occurred in 1802. It was then that the first hospital for children in Paris was built.
In domestic medicine, the problem of creating a separate direction, specializing in the treatment of children, was carried out by eminent scientists and doctors. Among them are M. V. Lomonosov, A. N. Radishchev, N. I. Novikov, I. I. Betsky, as well as S. G. Zybelin.
In Russia, children's hospitals were built in St. Petersburg (1834) and Moscow (1842). And only in 1865, the first in our country Department of Children's Diseases was opened.
After the science of pediatrics was classified into a separate medical direction, within it began to stand out narrow specializations, respectively, there were different categories of pediatricians. Namely, such trends have been formed:
- Preventive direction in pediatrics. It consists in carrying out measures that prevent child morbidity. The duties of a pediatrician who deals with this particular area include routine examinations of children, dissemination of knowledge about healthy lifestyles, hardening, vaccination and other measures to preserve the health of babies. In addition, prophylactic pediatrics itself is divided into 3 levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. The first is aimed at preventing diseases through the intake of vitamin complexes and vaccinations. The secondary course is aimed at the early detection of the symptoms of disease initiation with the help of routine screenings and examinations with the delivery of tests. And the goal of tertiary preventive pediatrics is to prevent the progression of childhood illness by methods such as diet with problems with the digestive system and much more.
- In the clinical direction, the duties of a pediatrician are directly in the identification and treatment of children's diseases.
- The scientific side is based on the implementation of innovative developments in the field of maintaining the health of young patients.
- Ecological direction is engaged in determining the level of environmental impact on the health of future generations.
- Social pediatric direction is responsible for the approval of the norms of public health and statistical medical accounting, and also involves interaction with various institutions that preserve the health of children.
Given all the above, it is easy to conclude that a doctor who works in the field of pediatrics is called a "pediatrician." Based on the direction in which the doctor works, his duties are formed.
A pediatrician who works at a children's clinic provides diagnostic and treatment functions for babies. This specialist can be considered the first "real" doctor of the newborn baby. He will observe the child from birth to 16 years. That is, during the age stage, which is characterized by rapid physical formation and development of a person, this doctor will comprehensively monitor the health of the little patient.
The pediatrician has knowledge from different areas of medicine, as he must understand the symptoms of various diseases characteristic of children.
The responsibilities of the pediatrician's doctor primarily consist not so much in the immediate cure of the disease, as in the professional timely diagnosis of violations of the health status of the child.
The history of childbirth, together with the conclusion of the neonatologist, is passed to the pediatric clinic just for the pediatrician. The information provided may be extremely important for the subsequent examination of the child and diagnosis.
Generally speaking, a pediatrician treats such childhood diseases:
- viral and bacterial infections;
- problems with digestion, immunity;
- predisposition to allergic reactions and much more.
The pediatrician has the right to give directions for tests, as well as for consultations with narrow specialists, if necessary. For example, a pediatrician may suspect a visual impairment in a baby, but he does not deal with the treatment of such a disease. In this case, the pediatrician precinct sends the crumb to the pediatric oculist.
The most common diseases that such a specialist treats are:
- acute respiratory infections;
- childhood uncomplicated allergic manifestations;
- runny nose and much more.
But the main task of the children's doctor is to conduct preventive examinations and timely detection of diseases of the baby, as well as setting the correct further scheme of actions in a particular situation.
What is the patronage of the newborn?
One of the important functions of the pediatrician is the management of the so-called patronage of newborns. What it is? While still in the hospital, a young mother is asked to indicate the address of the actual residence of the baby. This information is necessary so that in the first two days (most often on the second day) after discharge from the maternity ward, the district pediatrician together with the nurse will conduct the first routine examination of the child at home.
What is it for? Since the newborn requires special medical supervision and special care, visiting the crumbs by a doctor is extremely important in order to preserve the health of the baby and its further full development.
The pediatrician will conduct a standard examination - check the springs, perform a tummy palpation, evaluate the process of healing the navel, tone and reflexes of the child. In addition, it is when visiting the doctor that the doctor will give the mother of the newborn advice on breastfeeding and caring for the baby.
The first trip to the clinic
Baby already one month old from birth. From this point on, the mother must come monthly for a routine check-up at the pediatrician to the children's clinic. Usually for such visits a special “baby day” is provided, when doctors take only healthy babies up to one year old. Thus, conditions are created for a safe visit to the clinic of the crumb.
Why do you need to go every month to a children's doctor with a child of the first year of life? Such a reception by a pediatrician provides for weighing and measuring the crumbs, listening to the heartbeat and breathing. Also, the specialist will listen to complaints and questions, feels the stomach for the presence of swelling and colic, check the reflexes of the baby. Such an examination is extremely important for the timely detection of abnormalities in the child's development. It is in the first year of life that a small person develops most actively.
How to prepare for the first visit?
The first visit to the children's clinic should be treated responsibly in order to preserve the health of the newborn. First of all, make an appointment in advance in order to exclude long standing in line under the office to the pediatrician. Then take care of comfortable clothes for the baby. The pediatrician will examine the body for the presence of lesions and redness, so the crumbs should be easily removed and put on so as not to delay the doctor and the following patients. Depending on the time of year, choose comfortable and moderately warm clothes, so that, while in the corridor while waiting for the doctor, the baby feels comfortable.
It is important to stock up with a replaceable set of clothes and diapers, as well as not to forget napkins, favorite crumbs and food toys (in the case of artificial feeding).
Think about what means of transfer of the baby is more convenient to take. So, the wheelchair is convenient on the way from the house to the clinic and back, but in the medical institution itself, such a vehicle must be left in the lobby or in a specially designated place. Inside the room, a portable cradle or chair will become comfortable - so the baby will not have to be held all the time, and if desired, the crumb can take a nap in such a comfortable bed.
Before the first visit to the pediatrician, it is recommended to make a list of questions that have arisen in advance, to think over what moments disturb the young mother.
Routine pediatrician visit
The instructions of the pediatrician include routine examinations of children in order to preserve their health. First of all, attention is paid to babies of the first year of life, who come to the doctor every month with their mother.
In addition, a planned visit is considered vaccination. This applies not only to newborns, but also to older children. Often, the school administration organizes vaccinations or medical examinations of students directly in an educational institution.
What does a routine inspection imply?
At the scheduled examination, the pediatrician will weigh the child, measure its growth, listen to the heartbeat and evenness of breathing, assess the condition of the skin, and check for reflex reactions. In addition, it will carefully review the history, listen to complaints, give recommendations.
Referral to tests and diagnostic procedures
Pediatric pediatrician has the right to give direction to the necessary tests and diagnostic studies. Most often, for prophylactic and clinical purposes, conduct a general analysis of urine and blood, bacterial culture. According to indications, ultrasound, ECG and other measures of diagnosing diseases are prescribed. Also, the pediatrician directs to various physiotherapy procedures.
Issuance of medical forms for kindergarten and school
Planned are considered and inspections before entering a child in kindergarten or school. It is the pediatrician who will give a referral to the necessary specialists, and also recommend passing tests, after which he will issue an opinion in the form of Form 086-U, which confirms that the child can attend the children's team.
Unscheduled appeal to the pediatrician
Unfortunately, despite routine check-ups, children often get sick. When a child has various pathological symptoms that do not need emergency medical care, adults should take the baby first to the pediatrician. After examining the patient, the specialist will determine the next steps. In one case, the doctor will make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment or additional tests, in the other, he will refer you to a specialist.
Symptoms for which you should contact your pediatrician:
- increased body temperature;
- runny nose;
- skin rash;
- digestive disorders;
- pain in the joints or abdomen;
- pathological reaction to vaccination;
- symptoms of an infectious disease;
- pain when urinating;
- disturbed reactions and so on.
The work of the pediatrician is not only to receive children in the clinic, but also to visit young patients directly at home. So, in the presence of the above symptoms, a specialist can be called at home by calling the polyclinic registry.
How to choose a doctor?
Choosing a doctor for a child is an extremely important and serious process. Indeed, the health and sometimes the life of a baby depends on the professionalism of this specialist.
When choosing it is important to take into account that the doctor has the qualification of a pediatrician, preferably with work experience from 10 to 15 years. Why exactly these numbers? Yes, because the importance of practical experience is undeniable. But at the same time, a specialist who has been working for a long time may not be familiar with modern medical innovations and innovative treatment methods.
Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to choose a doctor for a child - it is impossible for a non-professional to assess the level of knowledge and skills of a pediatrician. Often, the realization of a wrong choice comes at a critical moment when a medical error has already occurred. We can recommend listening to the reviews about the doctor of the same young parents, but this way of choosing a specialist is quite subjective for several reasons.
If the choice is between the state polyclinic at the place of residence and a private hospital for children, then it is worth noting that the latter is noticeably different for the better by the availability of modern equipment and the service sector. As for the qualification of a specialist, there are different cases - some clinics are interested in their own prosperity, thereby forming highly professional staff, others do not focus attention on this issue and invite different categories of pediatricians to work.
Cost of consultation
In the state children's polyclinic at the place of residence, the admission of a pediatrician is absolutely free. But in a private clinic consultation of such a specialist will cost from 500 to 1500 rubles. Everything depends on the level of the institution, the qualifications of the doctor, the services provided to them.
Summing up, it can be noted that the pediatrician is the most important medical specialist for children. Follow his recommendations and do not miss the scheduled visits in order to preserve the health of the younger baby.