From the wide variety of narrow medical specialties, in this article we will consider the activities of such a doctor as a pediatrician. After all, this profession has established itself in all developed countries as one of the most necessary and important, including a wide range of knowledge from different fields of medicine. We will describe the duties of a pediatrician and explain in which cases it is necessary to seek help from a specialist.
Pediatrics as a science
In translation from the Greek language the term "pediatrics" is translated literally as "treatment of a child". Since the time of antiquity, the healers of those years have noted the features of the course of various diseases in children and their treatment. For many years, pediatrics have been inherent in obstetrics. That is, doctors simultaneously took delivery and treated children.
The separation of science in a special direction occurred in 1802. It was then that the first hospital for children in Paris was erected.
In the domestic medicine, the problem of creating a separate area specializing in the treatment of children was dealt with by outstanding scientists and doctors. Among them, MV Lomonosov, AN Radishchev, NI Novikov, I. I. Betsky, and S. G. Zybelin can be mentioned.
In Russia, children's hospitals were built in St. Petersburg (1834) and Moscow (1842). And only in 1865 the first in our country department of childhood diseases was opened.
After the science of pediatrics was classified into a separate medical field, narrow specializations began to appear within it, accordingly, different categories of pediatric physicians appeared. Namely, such trends were formed:
- Prophylactic direction in pediatrics. It consists in carrying out measures that prevent children's morbidity. In the duties of a pediatrician, who is engaged in this area, includes routine examinations of children, dissemination of knowledge about healthy lifestyle, hardening, vaccination and other measures to preserve the health of children. In addition, the preventive pediatrics itself is divided into 3 levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. The first is aimed at preventing diseases through the use of vitamin complexes and vaccinations. Secondary takes a course for early detection of symptoms of the onset of the disease with the help of scheduled screenings and examinations with the delivery of tests. And the goal of tertiary preventive pediatrics is to prevent the progression of childhood illness by methods such as diet in case of problems with the digestive system and much more.
- In the clinical direction, the duties of a pediatrician doctor are directly related to the definition and treatment of children's diseases.
- The scientific side is based on the implementation of innovative developments in the field of preserving the health of small patients.
- The ecological direction is engaged in determining the level of environmental impact on the health of the future generation.
- The social pediatric direction is responsible for the approval of public health standards and statistical medical records, and also involves interaction with various institutions that preserve the health of children.
Given all of the above, it is easy to conclude that a doctor who works in the field of pediatrics is called a "pediatrician". Based on the direction in which the doctor works, his job duties are formed.
The pediatrician, who works in the children's polyclinic, performs the functions of diagnosing and treating babies. This specialist can be considered the first "real" doctor of a newborn baby. He will observe the child from birth to 16 years. That is, during the age stage, which is characterized by rapid physical formation and development of a person, this doctor will comprehensively monitor the health of a small patient.
The pediatrician has knowledge from different fields of medicine, as he must understand the symptoms of a variety of diseases, characteristic of children.
Obligations of the child's doctor are primarily not so much in the immediate cure of the disease, but in the professional timely diagnosis of health disorders of crumbs.
The history of childbirth, together with the conclusion of the neonatologist, is passed to the pediatrician at the children's polyclinic. The information provided can be extremely important for the subsequent examination of the child and the diagnosis.
If to say in general, then the pediatrician treats such childhood diseases:
- viral and bacterial infections;
- problems with digestion, immunity;
- predisposition to allergic reactions and much more.
The pediatrician has the right to give directions for analyzes, as well as for consultations to narrow specialists, if necessary. For example, a pediatrician may suspect a visual impairment in a baby, but he does not deal with such an ailment. In this case, the pediatrician, the district doctor, directs the crumb to the child's ophthalmologist.
The most common diseases that are treated by such a specialist are:
- acute respiratory infections;
- children's uncomplicated allergic manifestations;
- runny nose and much more.
But the main task of the child's doctor is to carry out preventive examinations and timely detection of the baby's diseases, as well as setting the right further scheme of action in a specific situation.
What is the patronage of the newborn?
One of the important functions of a pediatrician is the maintenance of the so-called patronage of newborns. What it is? In the maternity home, a young mother is asked to indicate the address of the actual residence of the baby. This information is necessary in order that in the first two days (most often on the second day) after discharge from the maternity ward the district pediatrician together with the nurse held the first scheduled examination of the child at home.
What is it for? Since the newborn requires special medical supervision and special care, a visit to the doctor of crumbs is extremely important for maintaining the health of the baby and its further full development.
The pediatrician will conduct a standard examination - check the fontanelles, perform palpation of the tummy, assess the healing process of the navel, tonus and reflexes of the child. In addition, it is during the patronage visit that the doctor will give the newborn's mother advice on breastfeeding and caring for the baby.
The first trip to the polyclinic
The kid has already turned a month from birth. Since that moment, the mother needs to visit the pediatrician on a monthly basis at the children's polyclinic. Usually, for such visits, a "Breastfeeding Day" is specially provided, when doctors take only healthy babies for up to a year. Thus, conditions for a safe visit to a polyclinic are created.
Why do you need to walk every month to a pediatric doctor with a child of the first year of life? This method of pediatrician provides for weighing and measuring the crumbs, listening to the heartbeat and breathing. Also, the expert will listen to complaints and questions, feel the stomach for bloating and colic, check the baby's reflexes. Such an examination is extremely important for the timely detection of abnormalities in the development of the child. It is in the first year of life that a small person develops most actively.
How to prepare for the first visit?
The first visit to the children's polyclinic must be taken responsibly in order to preserve the health of the newborn. First of all, make an appointment in advance, in order to exclude a long standing in the queue under the office to the pediatrician. Then take care of comfortable clothes for the baby. The pediatrician will inspect the body for rashes and redness, so the crust dress should be easily removed and worn, so as not to delay the doctor and the following patients. Depending on the time of the year, choose comfortable and moderately warm clothes, so that while in the corridor while waiting for the doctor, the baby feels comfortable.
It is important to stock up on a replacement set of clothes and diapers, as well as not forget napkins, favorite crumbs and food (in case of artificial feeding).
Think about which means of carrying the baby is more convenient to take. So, the stroller is convenient on the way from home to the clinic and back, but here in the medical institution such a means of transportation will need to be left in the hall or in a specially designated place. Inside the room, a portable cradle or an armchair will be convenient - so the baby does not have to be kept on hand all the time, and if desired, the little one can take a nap in such a comfortable bed.
Before the first visit to the pediatrician, it is recommended to make a list of the questions that have arisen beforehand, to think over what moments disturb the young mother.
Routine visit to the pediatrician
The instructions of the pediatrician include scheduled examinations of children in order to preserve their health. First of all, attention is paid to babies of the first year of life who come with their mother to the doctor every month.
In addition, a routine visit is considered vaccination. This applies not only to newborns, but also to older children. Often, the school administration organizes the vaccination or medical examination of students directly in the school.
What does a scheduled inspection involve?
At the scheduled examination, the pediatrician will weigh the child, measure his height, listen to the heartbeat and the uniformity of breathing, assess the condition of the skin, check the reflex reactions. In addition, will carefully examine the history, listen to complaints, give recommendations.
Direction for analyzes and diagnostic procedures
A pediatric pediatrician has the right to give directions for necessary tests and diagnostic studies. More often in the preventive and clinical purposes, a general analysis of urine and blood, bacterial culture. According to the indications, ultrasound, ECG and other measures for diagnosing diseases are prescribed. Also the pediatrician directs to various physiotherapeutic procedures.
Issue of medical forms for kindergarten and school
Scheduled are also examinations before the child enters the kindergarten or school. It is the pediatrician who will give the referral to the necessary specialists, as well as recommend the delivery of tests, after which he will give a conclusion in the form of a form 086-U, which confirms that the child can attend the children's team.
Unplanned treatment to the pediatrician
Unfortunately, despite scheduled examinations, children are often ill. If a child has various pathological symptoms that do not need emergency medical care, adults should take the baby to the pediatrician first. After examining the patient, the specialist will determine the further actions. In one case, the doctor will diagnose and prescribe a treatment or additional tests, in another - will send to a specialist.
Symptoms that should be addressed to a pediatrician:
- increased body temperature;
- rash on the skin;
- pain in the joints or abdomen;
- pathological reaction to inoculation;
- symptoms of an infectious disease;
- pain when urinating;
- violation of reactions and so on.
The work of a pediatrician is not only about receiving children in the clinic, but also in visiting small patients directly at home. So, in the presence of the above symptoms, a specialist can be called at home by calling the polyclinic's registry.
How to choose a doctor?
Choosing a doctor for a child is a very responsible and serious process. Because of the professionalism of this specialist depends on health, and sometimes the life of the baby.
When choosing it is important to take into account that the doctor had the qualification of a pediatrician, preferably with an experience of 10 to 15 years. Why exactly such figures? Because the importance of practical experience is undeniable. But at the same time, a specialist who has worked for a long time may not be familiar with modern innovations in medicine, innovative methods of treatment.
Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to choose a doctor for a child - it is impossible for a layman to assess the pediatrician's knowledge and skills. Often the realization of wrong choices comes at a critical time when a medical error has already occurred. You can recommend listening to reviews about the doctor of the same young parents, but this method of choosing a specialist is quite subjective for a number of reasons.
If the choice is between the state polyclinic at the place of residence and the private hospital for children, then it should be noted that the latter is noticeably different for the better by the availability of modern equipment and service. As for the qualification of a specialist, then there are different cases - some clinics are interested in their own prosperity, thereby forming highly professional staff, others do not focus on this issue and invite to work different categories of pediatricians.
Cost of consultation
The pediatrician's reception is absolutely free in the state children's polyclinic at the place of residence. But in private clinics the consultation of such a specialist will cost from 500 to 1500 rubles. Everything depends on the level of the institution, the qualification of the doctor, the services he provides.
Summarizing, it can be noted that the pediatrician is the most important medical specialist for children. Follow his recommendations and do not miss planned visits in order to preserve the health of the growing up baby.