Let's talk about what morphology is studying. To do this, consider the main definitions associated with this topic.
What does science study morphology? Translated from the ancient Greek language, this word sounds like "the doctrine of forms." But what does this scientific discipline do? For example, in linguistics, morphology is regarded as the basis for studying the structure of the word, its forms.
But morphology alone is not limited to linguistics. What does this science study in biology? As a biological discipline, it deals with the external (color, shape, structure), as well as its internal structure of the organism.
Now we will analyze what the morphology of microorganisms is studying with the example of bacteria. Eidonymy, as it is also called, involves the consideration of external signs. And as a result of the research it was possible to find out that bacteria are prokaryotic unicellular microorganisms. Their dimensions are so small that they are determined in micrometers.
This section assumes a detailed consideration of all the features of the internal structure of living organisms. And what does morphology study here? Its task is to analyze only the structure of the body, while physiology deals with the analysis of its functioning.
Quite often in biology, a term such as "general morphology" is used. It is a discipline that defines the main or important distinctive features of some kind of microorganisms. First of all, we are talking about the coloring or form of the species under study. By the way, for the first time this term was proposed by the famous German naturalist and poet IV Goethe.
What is morphology currently studying? As you can see, it is used not only in biology, but also in Russian. But whatever the direction, the essence is that it represents the science of forms. Many taxa (groups) differ by morphological features. Basically, similar taxa have fewer differences than deleted ones. But some micro-species have similar external features, while their reproduction takes place in complete isolation. There are also situations in which related taxa are similar in appearance due to convergent evolution or by means of mimicry.
There is also such complexity, which is connected with morphological data, like DNA analysis. Based on the results of the analysis, it may turn out that in reality this is the same species.
Morphology of microorganisms
Arguing about the morphology of microorganisms, we turn to bacteria. It is customary to distinguish three of their varieties: crimped, rod-shaped, cocci. In addition, there are intermediate forms.
Kokki have a globular or elongated shape. They differ from each other in the arrangement after the fission process. If cocci are lonely, they are called micrococci, and in a pairwise arrangement - by diplococci. As pathogenic diplococci, lacental pneumococci are considered. Bean-shaped diplococci are gonococci and meningococci.
The peculiarity of streptococci is that their division occurs in the same plane. After the completion of the division, they form chains. Studies have found that pathogenic streptococci excite purulent-inflammatory diseases, scarlet fever, angina. Tetracocci divide in two perpendicular planes, forming combinations of four cocci.
The meaning of morphology
So what is the science of morphology studying? In biology, it is a science that deals with the study of the form of plants and animals. The classical doctrine of the morphological features and patterns of evolution was developed by academician A. N. Severtsov, as well as his pupil II Schmalhausen.
It was Severtsev who first defined the concept of morphological and biological progress in modern evolution. He described the morphological progress as a complication of the structure of the body, the appearance of renewed organs, additional functions as evolution evolved. Biological and morphological progresses have significant differences. Without a detailed analysis of these processes, it is difficult to analyze the distinctive features, characteristic features of various species, to assume their subsequent formation, existence, and improvement.
Morphology is characterized by several directions. The functional part deals with the study of the structure of organs on the basis of physiological functions. It takes into account those changes that occur during the increase or decrease in physiological activity. Ecological morphology is aimed at analyzing the changes occurring in the structure of different organs under the influence of climatic conditions. Age morphology analyzes those changes that occur in a separate organism as it develops.