Let's talk about what is studying morphology. To do this, consider the basic definitions associated with this topic.
What does morphology study? Translated from the ancient Greek language, the word sounds like “the doctrine of forms”. But what does this scientific discipline do? For example, in linguistics, morphology is considered as the basis for studying the structure of a word, its forms.
But only linguistics is not limited to morphology. What does this science study in biology? As a biological discipline, it deals with the consideration of the external (colors, shapes, structures), as well as its internal structure.
Now let's analyze what is studying the morphology of microorganisms on the example of bacteria. Adidony, as it is also called, involves the consideration of external signs. And as a result of research, we managed to find out that bacteria are prokaryotic single-cell microorganisms. Their sizes are so small that they are defined in micrometers.
This section assumes a detailed review of all the features of the internal structure of living organisms. And here what is studying morphology? Its task is to analyze only the structure of the body, while physiology is engaged in the analysis of its functioning.
Quite often, the term “general morphology” is used in biology. Under it imply a discipline that determines the main or important distinguishing features of a certain type of microorganisms. First of all, we are talking about the colors or the form of the studied species. By the way, for the first time this term was proposed by the famous German naturalist and poet I. V. Goethe.
What is morphology currently studying? As you can see, it is used not only in biology, but also in Russian. But regardless of direction, the point is that it is a science of forms. Many taxa (groups) have differences in morphological features. Mostly similar taxa have fewer differences than remote ones. But some microvids have similar external signs, despite the fact that their reproduction takes place in complete isolation. Situations are also allowed in which coupled taxa are identical in appearance due to convergent evolution or through mimicry.
There is also such complexity, which is associated with morphological data, as DNA analysis. According to the results of the analysis, it may turn out that in reality it is one and the same species.
The morphology of microorganisms
Considering the morphology of microorganisms, we turn to bacteria. It is customary to distinguish three of their varieties: convoluted, rod-shaped, cocci. In addition, there are intermediate forms.
Cocci have a spherical or elongated shape. They differ from each other in location after the division process. If the cocci are lonely, they are called micrococci, and when paired, they are called diplococci. Lactate pneumococci are considered as pathogenic diplococci. Bean-shaped diplococci are gonococci and meningococci.
The peculiarity of streptococci is that their division occurs in one plane. After completing the division, they form chains. Studies have found that pathogenic streptococci stimulate inflammatory diseases, scarlet fever, tonsillitis. Tetracocci are divided in two perpendicular planes, forming combinations of four cocci.
Meaning of morphology
So what does morphology study? In biology, it is a science that studies the shape of plants and animals. The classical theory of morphological features and laws of evolution was developed by Academician A. N. Severtsev, as well as his student I. I. Schmalgauzen.
It was Severtsev who first defined the concept of morphological and biological progress in modern evolution. He described the morphological progress as a complication of the structure of the body, the appearance of updated organs, additional functions as they evolve. Biological and morphological progress have significant differences between them. Without a detailed analysis of these processes, it is difficult to analyze the distinctive features, characteristic signs of various types, to assume their subsequent formation, existence, improvement.
Morphology is characterized by several directions. The functional part deals with the study of the structure of organs based on physiological functions. It takes into account the changes that occur during the increase or decrease in physiological activity. Ecological morphology is aimed at analyzing changes occurring in the structure of various organs under the influence of climatic conditions. The age morphology analyzes the changes that occur in a separate organism as it develops.