Ethanol is the main component of alcoholic beverages. Normal vodka is 40% worth of it. In everyday life it is called alcohol. Although in fact this term characterizes a huge class of organic substances. The boiling point of alcohol at normal pressure is 78.3 degrees Celsius. This applies only to undiluted ethanol. The boiling point of the alcohol solution is usually somewhat less. In this article we will understand what ethanol is. Also we will discuss its physical and chemical properties, features of production and application. We will not pass over the main question as to which boiling point of alcohol.
Ethanol is one of the most famous alcohols. Its molecule includes elements such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The chemical formula of ethanol is C2 H6 A. It is a colorless liquid with a specific alcoholic odor. It is lighter than water. The boiling point of alcohol is 78.39 degrees Celsius. But this is at normal pressure. The boiling point of the rectified alcohol is 78.15 degrees Celsius. It contains 4.43% water. The boiling point of ethyl alcohol is the less, the more diluted it is.
Application in household and industry
Ethyl alcohol is an excellent solvent. It is produced by fermentation of sugar with yeast. In many villages of the post-Soviet countries, it is still being done at home. The resulting alcoholic beverage is called moonshine. Ethanol is the oldest recreational drug used by man. It can cause alcohol intoxication when consumed in a significant amount.
The boiling point of alcohol from pressure
When the physical properties of substances are indicated in the reference books, it should be understood that all these measurements were taken in so-called normal conditions. With increasing pressure, the boiling point of ethyl alcohol decreases. Today, you can find many tables, which provide reference data on this issue. At 780 mmHg, ethanol boils at 78.91 degrees Celsius, at 770 to 78.53ºC, at 760 to 78.15ºC, at 750 to 77.77ºC, at 740 to 77.39ºC, at 720 to 76.63ºC .
The boiling point of methyl alcohol
CH3 OH is initially produced as a by-product of the destructive distillation of wood. Today it is produced directly from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The smell of it is very similar to ethanol. However, methanol is very toxic and can lead to death. The boiling point of alcohol is 64.7 degrees Celsius. It is used as an antifreeze and solvent. It is also used for the production of biodiesel.
History of production
Fermentation of sugar for the production of ethanol is one of the earliest biotechnologies in the service of humanity. The intoxicating effect of drinks on its basis has been known since ancient times. People have always liked the state of the altered consciousness that it evokes. Another 9,000 years ago, the Chinese knew alcoholic beverages. Distillation, as a process, was well known to Arabs and Greeks, but they lacked the guilt. Alchemists have learned to produce alcohol from it only in the 12th century. Synthetic ethanol was first produced only in 1825 by Michael Faraday.
Chemistry and Medicine
Ethanol is used mainly as a raw material for the production of other substances and a solvent. It is one of the components of many household products, which are daily used in everyday life. Ethanol is a part of windshield wipers and antifreezes. In medicine, it is used as the simplest antiseptic. It well disinfects and dries up wounds. It is also used for making all kinds of infusions and extracts. In addition, it cools well and warms well. In the absence of other medications, it was used as an anesthetic.
Society and Culture
In a study published in 2002, it was found that 41% of deaths in car accidents occur due to drunk driving. The more alcohol in the driver's blood, the more risk. Drinking alcoholic drinks has a long history. A lot of research has been devoted to this social phenomenon. The process of drinking alcoholic beverages and intoxication are described in a variety of works of art. A well-known New Year's film "The irony of fate, or With a light steam!" Is dedicated to the consequences of the abuse of alcohol, albeit in a comic form. Many creative people used alcohol as a necessary element for generating new ideas or an easy way to overcome stress. Moderate use of alcohol is an acceptable and even desirable phenomenon in most modern cultures. Drinking of alcoholic beverages is a tradition at many solemn events. The exception is Islam. According to the rules of this religion, the use of any alcoholic beverages is a terrible sin.
Alcoholism and its consequences
Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a disease. It is characterized by physical and mental dependence on vodka or other strong drinks, is a form of substance abuse. Alcoholics lose control over the amount drunk. They need an ever larger dose for pleasure. It is believed that improving the welfare of the population leads only to an increase in the volume of alcohol consumption. For the first time the study of chronic alcoholism was undertaken by the Swedish doctor M. Guss in 1849. He distinguished a number of pathological changes that appear in humans with the systematic use of alcohol. Now scientists draw a clear line between drunkenness and alcoholism. The second is a disease that a person can not cope with. It passes through several stages in its development. At each new stage, the dependence increases gradually. The patient needs an increasing dose. Gradually, chronic intoxication of alcohol leads to somatic disorders. The initial signs of physical and mental dependence include the loss of control over consumption and the appearance of drinking bouts. Persons with pronounced alcoholism are distinguished by malfunctions in the work of internal organs and mental disorders.
Treatment and prevention
To combat alcohol dependence, medicines are required. First, drugs are needed to eliminate malfunctions in the body. Secondly, medicines that are not compatible with alcohol consumption are mandatory. The patient is informed that drinking during treatment can lead to his death. In addition, psychologists must work with the patients. Their task is to consolidate the effect of treatment and form a negative image of drunkenness. Also mandatory is the social rehabilitation of former alcoholics. It is important to help people find their place in society, to return the family. Happy people do not go into drinking. Therefore, the treatment of alcoholism largely depends on the skills of the psychologist.