Peaches refer to delicacy fruits. They are used fresh and canned. Peach bones are rich in fatty oils, which allows using them in medicine and cosmetology. But, first you need to plant and grow a healthy tree. Peaches, like other fruits, suffer from various diseases. About them and much more will be discussed in this article.
Description of peaches
The birthplace of the peach tree is China. Only in the first year of our era this fruit became a sign in Persia, Greece, Rome. People appreciated the useful and taste qualities of the fruit. Soon, the peach spread throughout Europe and other countries where there is a warm climate. This became possible also because the tree is unpretentious.
Peach belongs to the family of Rosaceae. The height of the tree reaches seven meters. The leaves are sessile, lanceolate with a jagged margin. They appear later than tender flowers. The fruit is sweet, fragrant. It weighs one hundred and sixty grams and more. The peach has an oval or round shape. The skin is soft, velvety. The bone is wrinkled, with grooves and dimples.
Distinguish the pubescent fruit and the undressed, which are called nectarines. During flowering this fruit crop is similar to almond steppe. A hundred days are enough for the full ripening of peaches. Overripe fruits lose acid, their taste deteriorates.
Cultivation of a peach from a stone
This is quite possible if you follow a certain technology and follow simple instructions:
- To grow a peach from a bone, it is recommended to take such a cultivar that grows in a given locality and is well adapted to its climate.
- It is necessary to know from which tree the fruit: the root-born or grafted. It is very important. The fact is that the feature of the kind of fruit of the root-bearing tree can be traced by 70-80%, and from the peach grown on a tree grafted, most likely, the planting material will be a void.
- Before planting, about seven days, the peach bone is soaked in water, which changes daily.
- On the day of planting, the bone is pricked with a hammer, but so as not to damage the seed.
- Planting material is laid in the ground to a depth of 8 cm, poured from above and sprinkled.
- Peach from a bone is preferable to start growing in autumn, so the seed will pass through stratification naturally.
Now it remains to wait. The earth must always be moist and friable. After root germination, the stem will quickly grow. During the summer period it will grow to 1.5 meters, the crown will begin to grow significantly, which should be formed in the same year.
How to choose the right seedlings?
Before asking how to grow a peach, you should buy healthy seedlings. For this you need to pay attention to the following points:
- In what area the seedling is grown. If not in the one where it is sold, did it go through adaptation to a new climate.
- At the site of the growth of the rootstock and the scion, the surface should be smooth, without sagging, and dry. Juice should not flow out.
- The health of the root system is assessed by the state of the wood layer after breaking off a small piece of bark. If it is green, then the root is not damaged, such a plant will quickly take root.
- How to grow a peach healthy? One of the components of the answer to this question is the age of the seedling. Annual plants will get better and quickly grow stronger.
Selecting the place of growth
How to plant a peach? What is needed for this? First of all, you need to choose a place for planting. It must be dry, high. Peach does not tolerate swampy and damp areas. In principle, it suits any soil with good moisture and air exchange. It can be loam.
It is recommended to plant the crop on the illuminated and sheltered from the winds. For this purpose, the south side of the site is ideal. High bushes and trees should not overshadow the seedling. This should be followed. The fact is that wood grown in the shade of young shoots does not ripen. This has a negative effect on the laying of flower buds.
To avoid peach disease, it is not recommended to plant a crop for three to four years on sites previously occupied by strawberries, alfalfa, clover, solanaceous cultures or melons. Otherwise, the root is putrefied.
The plot of land must be digested a year before the peach landed in the soil, adding manure, wood ash, potassium and superphosphate. During digging, the soil is cleared of weeds and oxygen saturation occurs. And yet, how to plant a peach?
First, the rows for future trees are determined on the plot prepared since autumn. They are located from south to north in a flat area, and on the slope - across it. In each row, at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other dig holes 50 cm deep. The diameter should be such that the root is conveniently located. The seedling is placed in a well with drainage at the bottom and is sprinkled with soil mixed with manure and ash. Then carefully watered, the ground around the trunk is trampled and mulched by manure. The plant is best planted in the spring, until the first buds are blossomed. So it's better to live on, successfully overwinter, and many diseases of the peach will bypass it.
The causative agent of this disease is the fungus. It spreads over shoots and leaves with the onset of summer. Because of this peach disease, the stem of the leaf decreases, the internode converges, which shortens the shoots. The leaves begin to twist, thicken and crumble easily. The flowers turn pale green. With a wide spread of the disease, all the leaves fall off. After a while, the leaves grow again, but the fruits will be of lower quality, since the tree is weakened.
To prevent such a disease of peach leaves, like curly, it is necessary to cut and burn the affected shoots and diseased leaves. In the fall, when leaf fall begins, the damaged trees should be sprayed with a 3% solution of the Bordeaux liquid. And in the spring, with swelling of the kidneys, apply copper sulfate (1% solution). Spraying is carried out twice, with an interval of five days. But the most effective way to prevent this peach disease is to cultivate such cultivars that excellently resist the disease: Erlired, Stark Redgold, Nektared-2.
What is the disease of a peach?
- Klyasterosporiosis is a fungal disease that affects all organs of the plant: shoots and fruits, leaves, stems and trunks. This fungus is characterized by formations that look like punctures. Over time, there are dark purple spots, the tissue dies off, holes of impressive size are formed. This disease is called a holey spot. This fungus damages all species of cultivated trees with stone fruit. Speckiness on the peach may appear not only as a result of a fungal infection, but also as a result of the reaction of the plant to copper-containing preparations. With high humidity, peach diseases spread very quickly. And the fight against them is conducted in the most effective ways. Widely used fungicidal means: "Skor", "Strobi", "Delan", "Crystal". The first procedure is performed before the bud opening. To do this, take a double dose of "Skora" - 2 grams - and one teaspoon "Crystal". After five days, the treatment of the trees is repeated, but with the use of other drugs: "Delan" and "Crystal" one teaspoon and "Skora" - two grams.
- Powdery mildew is also a fungus, which manifests itself in separate areas of peach growth: in the foothills, on the Black Sea coast and near the Sea of Azov. This disease affects the leaves, fruits and shoots. They form a whitish-gray coating, which leads to deformation of the leaves and the depletion of shoots, which begin to slow growth and become thinner. The fruit taste worsens. Reduce the frost resistance of peach disease trees. And the fight against them is being merciless. The main method is cutting and burning of sick shoots. This work should be carried out during the vegetative period, as soon as signs of powdery mildew become visible. For the treatment of trees, colloidal sulfur (0.5-1% solution) is used. The procedure can be repeated up to four times per season. Remember, on young trees (5-6 years old) a highly concentrated solution can cause a burn. Therefore, 0.5% solution of this preparation should be used for their treatment.
How to protect the peach tree from disease?
- Regularly carry out pruning and burning of affected shoots and branches.
- In the early spring, sprinkle the trees with copper sulfate and "Horus".
- At the end of flowering, treat the plants with a Bordeaux liquid or with a "Skor".
- During the growing season it is recommended to collect the affected foliage, re-cut the shoots, which showed signs of curl, and all this burn.