Peaches are a delicious fruit. They are consumed fresh and canned. Peach bones are rich in fatty oils, which allows their use in medicine and cosmetology. But first you need to plant and grow a healthy tree. Peaches, like other fruits, suffer from various diseases. About them and many other things will be discussed in this article.
The homeland of the peach tree is China. Only in the first year of our era this fruit became familiar in Persia, Greece, Rome. People appreciated the beneficial and taste of the fruit. Soon the peach spread throughout Europe and other countries where there is a warm climate. This was also possible because the tree is distinguished by unpretentiousness.
Peach belongs to the family Rosaceae. The height of the tree reaches seven meters. Leaves sessile, lanceolate with serrated edge. They appear later than delicate flowers. The fruit is sweet, fragrant. It weighs one hundred and sixty grams and more. The peach has an oval or rounded shape. The skin is soft, velvety. Stone is wrinkled, with grooves and dimples.
Distinguish between the pubescent and undated fruits, called nectarines. During flowering, this fruit crop is similar to the steppe almond. For the full ripening of peaches, a hundred days is enough. Over-grown fruits lose acid, their taste deteriorates.
Growing peach from pits
This is quite possible if you follow a certain technology and follow simple instructions:
- To grow a peach from a stone, it is recommended to take a variety of crops that grows in the area and is well adapted to its climate.
- You need to know from which tree the fruit: root-rooted or grafted. It is very important. The fact is that the peculiarity of the variety of the fruit of the root-own tree can be traced by 70-80%, and from the peach grown on the grafted tree, most likely, the planting material will be barren.
- Before planting, in about seven days, the peach bone is soaked in water, which changes daily.
- On the day of planting, the stone is punctured with a hammer, but so as not to damage the seed.
- Planting material is laid in the ground to a depth of 8 cm, poured on top and powdered.
- Peach from the stone is preferable to start growing in the fall, so the seed will be stratified in a natural way.
Now it remains to wait. The earth should always be wet and loose. After germination of the root, the stem will quickly grow. Over the summer period, it will grow to one and a half meters, the crown will begin to grow noticeably, which should be formed in the same year.
How to choose the seedlings?
Before you ask how to grow a peach, you should purchase healthy seedlings. To do this, pay attention to the following points:
- In what area grown seedling. If not in the one where it is for sale, then has it gone through adaptation to the new climate.
- At the site of the intergrowth of the stock and the scion, the surface should be flat, without sagging, and dry. Juice should not flow.
- The health of the root system is assessed by the condition of the wood layer after the breaking off of a small piece of bark. If it is green, the root is not damaged, such a plant will quickly take root.
- How to grow a peach healthy? One of the components of the answer to this question is the age of the seedling. It is better to take root and quickly grow annual plants.
The choice of place of growth
How to plant a peach? What is needed for this? First you need to choose a place for landing. It should be dry, high. Peach does not tolerate swampy and wet areas. In principle, he is satisfied with any soil with good moisture and air exchange. It may be loam.
It is recommended to plant the culture in places lit and protected from the winds. For this ideal south side of the site. Tall shrubs and trees should not obscure sapling. Behind this should be traced. The fact is that wood grown in the shade of young shoots does not ripen. This has a negative effect on the establishment of flower buds.
To avoid peach disease, it is not recommended to plant a crop for three to four years in areas previously occupied by strawberries, alfalfa, clover, solanaceous crops or melons. Otherwise, the root is rotting.
It is necessary to dig up a plot of land a year before the peach is planted in the ground, after adding manure, wood ash, potassium and superphosphate. During the digging, the soil is cleared of weeds and it is saturated with oxygen. And yet, how to plant a peach?
First, on a plot prepared from autumn, the rows for future trees are determined. They are located from south to north on a flat stretch, and on a slope - across it. In each row, at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other, pits of 50 cm depth are dug. The diameter should be such that the root is conveniently located. The seedling is placed in the hole with a drainage at the bottom and sprinkled with earth mixed with manure and ash. Then it is thoroughly watered, the ground around the trunk is ground and mulched with manure. The plant is better to plant in the spring, until the first buds have blossomed. So it will take root better, successfully wintering, and many peach diseases will bypass it.
The causative agent of this disease is a fungus. It spreads along the shoots and leaves with the onset of summer. Because of this peach disease, the leaf stalk is reduced, the internode becomes closer, which shortens the shoots. The leaves begin to curl, thicken and crumble easily. The flowers become pale green. With widespread disease, all leaves fall. After some time the leaves grow again, but the fruits will be of lower quality, as the tree is weakened.
In order to prevent a peach leaf disease such as curl, it is necessary to cut and burn the affected shoots and diseased leaves. In the fall, when leaf fall begins, the damaged trees should be sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. And in the spring, with swelling of the kidneys, they use copper sulphate (1% solution). Spraying is carried out twice, with an interval of five days. But the most effective way to prevent this peach disease is the cultivation of such varieties of crops that perfectly resist the disease: Yerreded, Stark Redgold, Nektared-2.
What is sick peach?
- Klesterosporiosis is a fungal disease that affects all the organs of a plant: shoots and fruits, leaves, stem and trunks. This fungus is characterized by formations that have the appearance of punctures. Over time, dark purple spots appear, the fabric dies off, holes of impressive size are formed. This disease is called perforated spotting. All species of cultivated trees with stone fruits are damaged by this fungus. The perforation on peach can appear not only as a result of a fungal infection, but also as a result of the plant's reaction to copper-containing preparations. With increased humidity, peach diseases spread very quickly. And the fight against them is the most effective ways. Antifungal agents are widely used: “Scor”, “Strobe”, “Delan”, “Criston”. The first procedure is carried out before bud break. To do this, take a double dose of "Fast" - 2 grams - and one teaspoon of "Crystal". After five days, the processing of trees is repeated, but with the use of other drugs: “Delana” and “Crystalon” one teaspoon each and “Skora” - two grams.
- Mealy dew is also a fungus, which is manifested in individual zones of peach growth: in the foothills, on the Black Sea coast and near the Sea of Azov. Leaves, fruits, and shoots are affected by this disease. They form a whitish-gray bloom, which leads to deformation of the leaves and depletion of the shoots, which begin to slow down growth and become thinner. The taste of the fruit worsens. Reduce the frost resistance of peach disease trees. And the fight against them is ruthless. The main method is cutting and burning diseased shoots. This work should be carried out in the vegetative period, as soon as signs of powdery mildew become visible. Colloidal sulfur (0.5-1% solution) is used for treating trees. The procedure can be repeated up to four times per season. Remember, on young trees (5-6 years), a highly concentrated solution can cause a burn. Therefore, for their treatment should be applied 0.5% solution of this drug.
How to protect a peach tree from diseases?
- Regularly pruning and burning the affected shoots and branches.
- In early spring, sprinkle the trees with copper sulfate and Horus.
- At the end of flowering process plants Bordeaux liquid or means "Skor".
- During the growing season is recommended to collect the affected foliage, re-pruned shoots, which appeared signs of curly, and burn it all.