Bitumen is used for various purposes from ancient times to the present day is one of the most common materials for construction. Long before our era such famous cities as Babylon and Assyria used it for construction purposes. It perfectly performs the function of both cementing and waterproof bases.
Types of road bitumen
This building material can be divided into several separate groups according to their properties and technical characteristics. All parameters can be determined only after studying the organic composition of the material. A separate group is tar tar bitumen, since in this wide group all varieties of pitch and tar can be identified.
There are such options bitumen:
- Natural bitumen. This substance can be found in both liquid and hardened configuration, but all these varieties remain in the same group. Natural road oil bitumens GOST defines as consisting of organic components, as well as their derivatives, which are classified as a non-metallic type of chemical compounds. Such a substance appears only after the oil is processed by oxidizing polymers exclusively in natural conditions and after a large amount of time. Usually, natural generation bitumen can be found in large quantities only in places where large deposits of oil have been diagnosed and identified. This material can be compared with asphalt, it is stored in the form of specific small bogs. Usually, natural road oil bitumens, which are determined by GOST, are very rare, and they are mainly found where there is a large number of rocks.
- Asphalt powder. This is a substance that is buried only in rocks and has the appearance of limestone when it is located. When the substance is further processed, it is removed, and then actions are performed with it the same as with asphalt powder.
Other types of bitumen
- Artificial bitumen. It is often called petroleum, as it is possible to obtain this material only in the processing of oil. The technology that works in the production of bitumen, involves several types of this type: oxidized, residual, cracking.
- Tarmac bitumen. Its original location can be determined in fuel oil. You can get this type only by pushing some oil fractions from this substance. Tarmac oil road bitumen often acts as an excellent binding element, it also helps to extract all the other varieties of this building material.
Main types of bitumen
- BN-50/50. It can only be softened after reaching a temperature of 50 degrees, which is not an overestimated or difficult indicator. It is perfectly sticky, assessed by all repair and construction teams involved in road laying. If you leave this material on a flat surface, it will gradually spread, that is, it will gush, which allows you to make an even and uniform layer guaranteed.
- BN-70/30. To this substance began to soften, it is necessary to bring its temperature to 70-72 degrees, depending on the composition of a particular chemical compound. It adheres perfectly to the surface, that is, it provides a high adhesion rate. Usually this material is used to create a waterproofing, that is, as the lower or upper layer of the road. It should be remembered that this material has a predisposition to the formation of chips, but if it breaks, large pieces are formed without additional dust or small elements.
- BN-90/10. Quite a complex material that requires at least 90 degrees to melt. Provides excellent adhesion, and in the finished form almost does not show sensitivity even to relatively high temperatures. It is quite difficult to break it, however, when applying a load similar to a hammer blow, it can be expected to be scattered on fragments whose surface has the ability to glitter.
Spheres of application
Bitumen oil road viscous is almost universal building material, therefore, in addition to hydraulic engineering and industrial spheres, mixed with commerce, this substance is often used in road construction. Usually bitumens are used not only when laying and building roads, but also when repairing them, therefore the need for such material practically does not dry out.
Important differences from other materials
Oil road bitumen consists of a binder of organic nature and rubber, which a certain polymer can replace. This composition allows to improve the quality and durability of products from bitumen or objects with its addition, as well as to ensure compliance with the standards of modern technologies in construction.
The composition of bitumen
Usually bitumen oil road composition is simple, as it contains approximately the same components, mixed in slightly different proportions. Most of them are carbon, as they are in this substance about 75-80%. Hydrogen is significant, but still not the first position, since its volume is about 10-15% of the total composition. This is how the proportion of the volatile part of the oil road bitumen is determined. Sulfur is usually present, but its amount never exceeds 10% if the composition of bitumen meets the basic standards. Oxygen is only 5%, but is an important element. If you compare the structure of bitumen with a colloidal system, you can find many common features. Asphaltenes are completely dispersed in a specially created medium consisting of a mixture of oil and water.
Features of the composition
The elements listed above are always included in the composition, which oil road bitumens have liquid. GOST defines several important properties and characteristics of this building material. To increase the hardness of bitumen, it is enough to add more asphaltenes to the mixture together with the resin. It should be remembered that increasing these parameters leads to an increase in density and an increase in temperature, at which even minimal melting of a particular material is possible.
Features of bitumen
When oil road bitumens are considered, the technical characteristics provide for a high content of various substances of an oily nature. This element is more diluted and becomes softer in all respects. It can be easily melted using even a lower temperature than indicated in the characteristics of a particular brand, which includes oil road bitumens. GOST 22245-90 determines that the oil content together with the resin in bitumen is necessarily adjusted to an average level. If this parameter is neglected or the implementation of the correction is not possible, we should expect that the material will become less durable and will melt better.
Determination of technical specifications
It should be remembered that the degree of viscosity can be determined by the minimum temperature at which the bitumen melts. If you increase the temperature, the viscosity will almost immediately increase. When degrees decrease, material considerably hardens, becomes less plastic. If the temperature has dropped to zero or minus marks are observed, oil viscous road bitumen GOST defines as having possible fragility, therefore, when choosing a material for the production of the road, special care should be taken.
Bitumen has one important and in many respects positive property. He is not able to dissolve in water. It should be borne in mind that oil road liquid bitumens GOST defines as subject to complete or partial dissolution in substances having an acidic nature. Also, bitumen does not have a high heat capacity, so it is not suitable for insulation. As an insulating material it is used only to separate the structure from moisture. If you take into account the certificate of conformity, road bitumen must have a consistency with a density of at least 1.5 g / cm c. When the total mass of bitumen is calculated, a density value of 1 kg / m 3 is permissible for 1 l of a substance. This fact predetermines the features possessed by oil road viscous bitumens.
GOST provides that bitumens are distinguished by a wide range of positive features and important properties. High-quality bitumen should be hydrophobic, not dissolve in a liquid if it does not contain chemical reagents, soften and become more viscous with a change in the ambient temperature. Among the binder materials in the construction industry, road bitumen occupies an indisputable first place. If you choose the quality of its appearance, you can apply it with maximum efficiency for the construction of massive roads, as well as their repair, providing a durable positive result.