Bitumen has been used for various purposes since ancient times and to this day is one of the most common materials for construction. Even long before our era such famous cities as Babylon and Assyria used it for construction purposes. It perfectly performs the function of both cementing and waterproof substrates.
Types of road bitumen
This building material can be divided into several separate groups by properties and technical characteristics. Determine all the parameters can only be after examining the organic composition of the material. A tar bitumen acts as a separate group, since all varieties of pitch and tar can be identified in this broad group.
There are such variants of bitumens:
- Natural bitumen. This substance can be found both in the liquid and in the hardened configuration, but all these species remain in the same group. Natural bitumen petroleum road GOST defines as consisting of organic constituents, as well as from their derivatives, which are classified as non-metallic type of chemical compounds. Such a substance appears only after the oil is treated with oxidizing polymers only under natural conditions and after a long time. Usually bitumen of natural origin can be found in large quantities only in places where large oil fields are diagnosed and identified. This material can be compared with asphalt, it is stored in the form of specific small bogs. Usually, natural road oil bitumen, GOST-determined, is very rare, and they are mostly found where there is a large quantity of rocks.
- Asphalt powder. This substance, which is buried only in rocks and has the appearance of limestone when it is found. When further processing of the substance takes place, it is extracted, and then the actions are carried out with it the same as with the asphalt powder.
Other varieties of bitumen
- Artificial bitumen. It is often referred to as the oil, since this material can only be obtained by processing oil. The technology that works in bitumen production implies several types of this type: oxidized, residual, cracking.
- Asphalt bitumen. Its original location can be determined in fuel oil. Obtain this species only by pressing some oil fractions from this substance. Asphalt bitumen oil often serves as an excellent binding element, it also helps to extract all other varieties of this building material.
The main varieties of bitumen
- BN-50/50. It can be softened only after reaching a temperature of 50 degrees, which is not an overstated or complex indicator. It is perfectly adherent, which is appreciated by all repair and construction teams involved in laying roads. If you leave this material on a flat surface, it will gradually spread, that is, to swim, which makes it possible to make an even and uniform layer.
- BN-70/30. To this substance began to soften, it is necessary to bring its temperature to 70-72 degrees, depending on the composition of a particular chemical compound. It perfectly adheres to the surface, that is, it provides a high degree of adhesion. Usually, this material is used to create a waterproofing, that is, as the lower or upper layer of the road. It should be remembered that this material has a predisposition to the formation of chips, but if it is broken, large pieces are formed without additional dust or small elements.
- BN-90/10. A rather complex material, which requires at least 90 degrees to melt. Provides excellent adhesion, and in its final form it practically does not show sensitivity even to relatively high temperatures. It is quite difficult to break it, however, when applying a load similar to hammer blows, it is possible to expect its spillage into fragments, the surface of which has the ability to gleam.
Bitumen oil road viscous is practically universal building material, therefore, besides the hydraulic and industrial sphere mixed with commerce, this substance is often used in road construction. Usually, bitumen is used not only for laying and building roads, but also when repairing them, so the need for such material is almost constant.
Important differences from other materials
Petroleum road bitumen consists of an astringent substance of organic nature and rubber, which can be replaced by a certain polymer. Such composition allows to improve the quality and wear resistance of bitumen products or objects with its addition, as well as to ensure compliance with the norms of modern technologies in construction.
Composition of bitumen
Typically, the bitumen oil track is simple, as it contains roughly the same components mixed in slightly different proportions. The major part is occupied by carbons, since in this substance they are about 75-80%. Hydrogen occupies a significant, but still not the first position, since its volume is about 10-15% of the total composition. This determines the share of the volatile part of the bitumen of the oil road. Sulfur is usually present, but its amount never exceeds 10% if the composition of bitumen meets the basic standards. Oxygen occupies only 5%, however it is an important element. If we compare the structure of bitumen with a colloidal system, we can find many common features. Asphaltenes are completely dispersed in a specially created medium consisting of a mixture of oil and water.
Features of composition
The above elements are always part of the composition that bitumen petroleum road liquid has. GOST defines several important properties and characteristics of this building material. To increase the hardness of bitumen, it is sufficient to add more asphaltenes together with the resin to the mixture. It should be remembered that an increase in these parameters entails an increase in density and an increase in temperature at which even a minimum melting of a particular material is possible.
Features of bitumen
When bitumen is considered oil road, technical characteristics provide for a high content of various substances of oily nature. This element is more diluted and becomes soft in all respects. It can be easily melted using an even lower temperature than specified in the characteristics of a particular brand, which includes petroleum bitumens. GOST 22245-90 specifies that the oil content together with the resin in the bitumen is necessarily adjusted to an average level. If this parameter is neglected or the correction is not possible, it should be expected that the material will become less durable and will melt better.
Definition of technical characteristics
It should be remembered that the degree of viscosity can be determined from the minimum temperature at which bitumen melts. If you increase the temperature, the viscosity will almost immediately increase. When the degrees decrease, the material hardens noticeably, becomes less plastic. If the temperature has dropped to zero or negative signs are observed, the bitumen road oil viscous GOST defines as having a possible fragility, therefore, when choosing the material for road production, special care should be taken.
Bitumen has one important and in many respects a positive property. It can not dissolve in water. It should be borne in mind that bitumen oil road liquid GOST defines as subject to complete or partial dissolution in substances having acidic nature. Also bitumen does not have a high heat capacity, so it is not suitable for insulation. As an insulating material it is used only to distinguish the structure from moisture. If the conformity certificate is taken into account, the petroleum bitumen must have a consistency with a density of not less than 1.5 g / cm3. When the total mass of bitumen is calculated, a density of 1 kg / m3 is permissible per 1 liter of material. This fact predetermines the characteristics that bitumen oil road viscous.
GOST provides that bitumens differ in a wide range of positive features and important properties. Quality bitumen should have hydrophobicity, do not dissolve in liquid, if it does not have chemical reagents, soften and become more viscous when the ambient temperature changes. Among the binding materials in the construction sector, the bitumen oil roadway occupies an unquestionable first place. If you choose a quality look, you can apply it with maximum efficiency for the construction of massive roads, as well as their repair, which provides a long-lasting positive result.