Boris Yeltsin’s birth date is February 1, 1931. Yeltsin lived a bright and rich life, had a great influence on the change of morally obsolete Russian foundations through his political actions. Even his death was able to make an unforgettable event for millions of people, not only in Russia, but throughout the world. It is him who needs to be thanked for starting work on the formation of such a monumental power as the Russian Federation, which allowed her to take the stage on a par with the most prominent world countries and proudly hold the status of leader. In our today's article we will follow the biography of the first president of the Russian Federation.
The influence of the family on the young years of Yeltsin
In 1931, no one could have imagined that the birth of a boy in a simple peasant family would mark the beginning of a new stage in the development of Russia. Yeltsin’s biography during his life was complemented by a number of significant moments, each of which influenced the further formation of his personality.
Despite the fact that Boris was born in the village of Butka (Sverdlovsk region, Talitsky district), his childhood years were spent in the Perm region, in Berezniki. Yeltsin's father, Nikolai Ignatievich, came from the kulaks and actively supported the overthrown royal power, constantly speaking with anti-Soviet propaganda, for which he was imprisoned in 1934, served his sentence and was released. Although the conclusion was short, Boris could not get close to his father. His mother, Klavdia Vasilyevna Yeltsin (before Starygin’s marriage), was much closer to him. She, in fact, took upon herself all the family burdens, combining the fulfillment of parental debt with the daily labor of sewing clothes.
In his youth, Yeltsin actively helped his parents. The arrest of his father was a heavy blow to the family budget. After the communists came to power and mass repressions began in the country, the father, who was imprisoned at that time, had to work hard. After his release, he remained to work at the local plant, and the family’s affairs gradually began to improve. Since Boris turned out to be the eldest in the family, he had to grow up early, taking on some of the worries aimed at earning money and caring for his younger brother and sister.
Despite this, Yeltsin’s characterization was far from positive. From an early age, Boris began to show his character. Even at baptism, he managed to slip out of the hands of the priest who performed the ceremony, and fall into the font. At school, he fought for the rights of classmates with a teacher who forced children more often to resorted to physical labor, namely, to plow up their garden, and for failing to comply with the orders, pounded children.
Having entered the period of his youth, Boris got into a fight, where he was beaten by the nose of the shaft, but as it turned out, this was not all the troubles that awaited Yeltsin. Possessing a seething temperament and being a very complex teenager, he was able to steal a grenade from the nearest military warehouse and decided to examine its contents without inventing anything better than smashing it with a stone. As a result of such actions, an explosion occurred in which he lost two fingers on his right hand and gained another negative experience, because with such a mutilation he was not allowed to serve in the army.
Studying at the institute and choosing a profession
Rough childhood did not prevent to enter the Faculty of Civil Engineering. The choice fell on the Ural Polytechnic Institute, in which Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin acquired his first specialty as a civil engineer, which did not prevent him from mastering many more working professions, some of which are noted in the workbook. During his youth, he was able to climb the career ladder from the master to the chief of the Sverdlovsk house-building combine, which characterized him as an extremely purposeful person. Boris met his future wife Naina Boris at the same university. The couple began to communicate closely, and soon after graduation, they signed.
In his student years, Boris was actively involved in sports, and in particular volleyball, thanks to which he managed to get the title of master of sports, of which he was very proud.
Naina Yeltsina (Girin) was born on March 14, 1932 in the village of Titovka (Orenburg Region) and lived in a happy marriage with Boris from 1956 to 2007, during which she bore him two daughters - Helen and Tatiana.
Her family was very large (4 brothers and sister) and deeply religious, therefore special attention was paid to raising children. Yeltsin's years of life were marked by both ups and downs, but all the time Naina’s marriage was always next to her husband, acutely experiencing all his ups and downs, providing her husband with a reliable rear. Even people who do not welcome the work of Boris Yeltsin have always paid tribute to the tact and soulfulness of his wife.
At age 25, Naina decides to make the first changes in her life, changes her name and, accordingly, her passport. At birth, her parents gave her the name Anastasia, however, when the girl entered the service, she was constantly hurt by the official appeal “Anastasia Iosifovna”, to which she could not and did not want to get used.
Yeltsin's rich biography had a definite influence on her. After getting married, she not only did not quit her job, but also continued to improve her professional skills. After graduating from the institute, she received a degree in civil engineering and worked until her retirement at the Vodokanalproekt Institute, located in Sverdlovsk. Making her way up the career ladder, she, like her husband, having started from the bottom, was able to get an appointment as head of the institute group.
- International Oliver Prize.
- National Prize of Russia "Olympia". Awarded for outstanding achievements of contemporaries in politics, business, science, art and culture.
Work on the construction served as the basis for the complex technique of command of people, which, climbing the career ladder, often involved Yeltsin. Years of hard work made significant changes in his life. Having become accustomed at a construction site to the frequent use of alcohol, he treated him like something ordinary. In particular, it was most noticeable in his behavior on vacation. After joining the party, he repeatedly went on vacation to various sanatoriums, where he often entertained his party comrades by drinking a glass of vodka like compote. Despite this, starting at the age of 37, Yeltsin was engaged in party work, receiving the status of department head, followed by promotion to the secretary of the regional party committee.
In his youth, Yeltsin tried to hold dates for all Russian holidays in Sverdlovsk, arranging informal meetings with the workers. He could unexpectedly come to the store, to the food base or an enterprise and arrange an unscheduled inspection there, because thanks to his position he, in fact, became the first head of the largest industrial area of the USSR, gradually gaining people's trust as a politician who does everything for his people.
The rapid approach of fame
The swiftness with which Yeltsin’s biography changed, could not be ignored by the then USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who began to look closely at the stages of his political career.
As the first secretary of the regional committee in Sverdlovsk, Boris Yeltsin began to investigate the cases that his predecessor conducted, and among the papers found an order from 1975, which he did not bother to carry out. It was instructed as soon as possible to demolish the house of the merchant Ipatiev, in the basement of which during the revolution organized by the Bolsheviks seeking to overthrow the tsarist foundations, the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his family were killed. Yeltsin immediately ordered the demolition of the building. His decisive leadership style and diligence did not go unnoticed by the higher authority. Gorbachev issues a decree on his transfer to Moscow, and from that day on Yeltsin’s political career begins to move swiftly upwards. According to the recommendations given by the deputy Yegor Ligachev, Yeltsin is appointed to a responsible position - the First Secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee, where he successfully began to restore order among corrupt officials.
It was after his appointment that the black market of Moscow, working according to a system that had been debugged over the years, was shaken. Spontaneous food fairs began to appear in the city, allowing people to buy fresh collective farm fruits and vegetables directly from trucks, without any extra charge.
Yeltsin’s biography had an indirect influence on the fate of his daughters. They were raised with the clear awareness that the family is the most important thing in life. Boris and Naina tried to devote as much time as possible to the children, necessarily spending joint celebrations of birthdays and the New Year.
As a result of this upbringing, Yeltsin’s eldest daughter, Elena (in marriage to Okulov), repeated the fate of her mother. Spending all her free time to the family, she tried to avoid fame as much as possible, a certain portion of which imposed on her the birth of such a famous person in the family. The youngest daughter of Yeltsin, Tatiana, on the contrary, although she did not achieve such outstanding success as her father, but followed in his footsteps, leaving her mark on history. She began her career as an employee of the presidential staff of the Russian Federation in 1996, eventually becoming a key adviser to her father. She was married twice and has wonderful children with whom Naina Yeltsina loves to spend time with. Unfortunately, one of them, Gleb, was diagnosed with Down syndrome. However, the character of Yeltsin was reflected in the grandchildren. Even despite the fact that it is a rather unpleasant disease, Gleb manages to fully enjoy life.
Yeltsin, who was advancing to power in the 90s, had to establish himself as a strong political leader, in creating an image of which Tatiana played an important role. It should be noted that her appointment to such a high post caused many disputes at one time, because private entrepreneurs, according to the current legislation, could not occupy a political office, but the fact of appointment remained a fact.
Restoration of the country after the collapse of the USSR
After his appointment as a candidate member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1986, it was Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich who began an active struggle against the sluggish policy of restructuring, thanks to which he made his first enemies among the members of the Central Committee, under the pressure of which Yeltsin’s opinion changed dramatically, and he was appointed to post of the First Secretary of the City Committee of the capital. Since 1988, his dissatisfaction with the lack of will of members of the Politburo has only intensified. Most of all goes to Ligachev, who recommended Yeltsin for this position.
In 1989, he successfully managed to combine the post of deputy of the Moscow District and membership in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR until 1990, when he first became a people's deputy of the RSFSR, and then the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, whose post after approval by the parliament of the declaration on sovereignty of the RSFSR in the country more meaningful. It was during this period that conflict relations with Mikhail Gorbachev reached their peak, as a result of which he left the CPSU.
Most of the people reacted negatively to the collapse of such a great state as the Soviet Union, completely losing confidence in Gorbachev, which Yeltsin took advantage of. 1991 was marked by the fact that for the first time the people chose a president for themselves, which Boris Yeltsin became. For the first time, people themselves were able to choose a leader for themselves, because before that, the party was dealing with these issues, and people were simply informed about the change of leader.
The first president, Yeltsin, immediately after his appointment, begins an active purge of the ranks. In August 1991, he arrested Gorbachev in the Crimea and put him under house arrest. Then, before the new year of 1992, Yeltsin, having agreed with the top officials of Ukraine and Belarus, signs the Belovezhsky agreement, as a result of which the CIS appears.
Yeltsin’s rule could not be called calm. It was he who had to actively resist the Supreme Soviet, who disagreed with his decisions. As a result, disagreements grow to such proportions that Yeltsin has to introduce tanks into Moscow in order to dissolve parliament.
Despite the fact that he had strong support from the people, one significant slip crossed all merits. In 1994, Yeltsin approved the entry of the Russian military into Chechnya. As a result of hostilities, many Russians perish, and the people begin to show the first signs of discontent with the new government.
A few years after these events, Yeltsin decides to run for a second term and overtakes his main rival from the communists, Zyuganov. However, the election campaign did not pass for Yeltsin without a trace. After the ceremony of building him for the presidency, it took him more than a year to regain his health.
The change of power in the country
Yeltsin’s reign is entering its final stage in the late 1990s. As a result of the crisis in Russia and the rapid collapse of the ruble, its rating falls. Yeltsin decides to take an unexpected step for everyone: he quietly retires, leaving behind him a successor in the person of Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, who guarantees Boris Nikolayevich a calm and quiet old age.
Despite his departure from the main post, Yeltsin does not cease to participate in the political life of the country until Putin, by a special decree, officially forbids him to attend such events, worrying about his state of health. However, even such strict precautions could not prevent the unfortunate outcome.
Funny moments of life
Despite the fact that Boris's life was rather difficult, there were a lot of positive things in it. Only he could allow himself to communicate informally with the top officials of the countries, being a podshofe, which, although considered a lack of tact, was warmly perceived by most European chapters who had the most positive impressions about Yeltsin. During his visit to Germany, he liked the performance of the orchestra so much that he tried to conduct it himself. Well and, of course, it is impossible not to note the unsurpassed game on spoons. It is noteworthy that this talent would not fall into the category of funny moments from the life of Boris Yeltsin, if he had not used the heads of his subordinates to play.
Such political figures as Angela Merkel, George W. Bush, Jacques Chirac, Tony Blair, Bill Clinton, remembered Yeltsin forever as a cheerful and cheerful person, thanks to whom Russia finally had a chance to rise from its knees after the collapse of the USSR and the subsequent behind him a crisis. They were the first to express their condolences to Naina Yeltsina on the day of the funeral.
On April 23, 2008, at the Novodevichy cemetery, sculptor Georgy Frangulyan presented a monument to Boris Yeltsin. The memorial is made in the tones of the Russian flag, under which an Orthodox cross is engraved. The materials used were white marble, a Byzantine mosaic of heavenly color and red porphyry.
Death and funeral
The years of Yeltsin’s life allow him to be judged as a man with great willpower and a burden to life. Despite the fact that his political activity cannot be assessed unequivocally, it was he who had the honor of putting Russia on the path of improvement.
The death of Yeltsin came on April 23, 2007, at 15.45, at the Central Clinical Hospital. The cause was cardiac arrest as a result of progressive cardiovascular multiple organ failure, that is, a malfunction of the internal organs during a serious heart disease. It is worth noting that for all the time of his reign, he, as a true leader, has always been aimed at winning, even if this required overstepping certain moral or legislative foundations. At the same time, the character of this great man remains inexplicable. Striving for absolute power and overcoming many obstacles for this, he voluntarily abandons it, handing over the reins to Vladimir Putin, who not only was able to improve the state created by Yeltsin, but also made significant progress in all sectors.
Immediately before admission, Yeltsin suffered an acute form of a cold, which caused severe damage to his already poor health. Even though he went to the clinic almost two weeks before his death, the country's best doctors could not do anything. In the last week, he did not even get out of bed, and on the tragic day, the heart of the former head stopped twice, and the first time the doctors dragged him literally from the next world, and the second time he could do nothing.
According to the wishes of the relatives, the body of Boris Nikolayevich remained untouched, and the pathologist did not perform an autopsy, nevertheless it did not soften the fact that Yeltsin’s funeral became a real tragedy. And it's not only in a loving family, which sincerely experienced his death, but also in the tragedy for the entire Russian people. This day will forever be remembered by the people of Russia as the day of great mourning declared by a special decree of the new president of the Russian Federation.
Yeltsin’s funeral took place on April 25, 2007. The tragic ceremony was covered by all the major Russian TV channels, so that those who could not come to say goodbye to Moscow would be able to watch what was happening and say goodbye to this outstanding person on the other side of the screen.
The ceremony was attended by many former and current heads of state. Those who could not appear in person expressed their condolences to Yeltsin’s relatives. When the coffin with the body of the former head of state was lowered into the ground, an artillery salute sounded, commemorating the tribute to the president, who will always be remembered in Russia.