Fables we love to read since childhood. Many of us keep in memory images from the fables, which in certain situations pop up in our head. These stories, small in size, but with a deep meaning, teach us mind-reason and accompany in life.
What is a fable?
The fable is a short moralizing story, which is of an allegorical satirical nature. In fables, as a rule, actors are not people, but animals that have human personal qualities: cunning - foxes, stubbornness - to crayfish or rams, wisdom to sovi, stupidity to monkeys. Items can also act as the protagonists of these short stories.
The form of a fable's speech is a prose or a poem. In the fables quite often there are motives of social criticism, but often deride human vices and wrong deeds.
The emergence of satirical stories, fables in Russia
Fable is a story that appeared in Rus as a translation of Aesop's works in the early 17th century. The first translator was Gozvinsky Fyodor Kasyanovich. It was he who first introduced the definition of a fable as a literary genre. It was believed that the fable is a small work in prose or verse, which is built on the principles of allegory and contains a moralizing character. Truth was manifested through a false story.
In the 18th century, Antioch DK created this genre. Trediakovsky V.K. Sumarokov A.P. Chemnitzer I.I. They performed translations of fable stories, mainly Aesop, as well as works of European fabulists: Gellert H. Lessing G. Moore T. Jean de Lafontaine.
Ivan Ivanovich Chemnitzer was the first to start creating his own fable. In 1779 his collection was published under the title "Fables and Tales of NN in verse". Continued the tradition of publishing his own fables Ivan Ivanovich Dmitriev, who tried to form a new, own approach to literature. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Izmailov's works were popular. However, the most significant contribution to the development of the fable genre is considered the work of the great classic Ivan Andreevich Krylov. Derzhavin, Polotsky, Khvostov, Fonvizin, Bedny and many others also addressed this genre at different times.
What is a metaphor?
In fact, the fable is a hero-beast with a human character. They act like a person. The trick is peculiar to a fox, cunning is a snake. Goose, as a rule, is identified with stupidity. Leo is given courage, courage and courage. The owl is considered wise, and the ram or donkey is stubborn. Each of the characters necessarily possesses one characteristic feature of the person. The moralized natural science of animals from the fables was eventually made into a series of collections known as the Physiologist.
The concept of morality in the fable
The fable is a short story of an instructive nature. We often think that you should not think about what you read and look for a secret meaning in words. However, this is fundamentally wrong if we want to learn to understand each other better. The fable needs to study, ponder it. Morality of the fable is her brief moralizing conclusion. It covers the whole problem, rather than concentrating on a specific episode. Fables are written in such a way that a person does not just laugh at its content, but also understands its own mistakes and at least tries to improve for the better.
The use of fables
Life problems that are ridiculed in fables are boundless and endless. Most often, laziness, lies, stupidity, ignorance, boasting, stubbornness, greed are criticized. Each of us can find in the fables of a character similar to himself. All situations described in these small satirical stories are very vital and realistic. Thanks to the irony, the fable teaches not only to notice certain defects, but also makes attempts to improve oneself. Reading humorous works of this nature has a very beneficial effect on the psychological health of a person.
Fables, among other things, often ridicule the political system of the state, the social problems of society and common counterfeit values.
Fable "The Crow and the Fox" - what is the moral?
The fable "Oboz" - for children or adults?
In this work, Krylov compares the actions of a young horse and more experienced (good horse). The old horse acts slowly, slowly, thinking through every step to lower the wagon intact. But the young and too boastful horse considers himself better and smarter and constantly reproaches the old horse. In the end, everything ends sadly.