Barshchina and rent - this is the political and economic dependence of the peasants on the feudal lords. These concepts are characteristic both for the feudal period of the development of Russia, and for the times of the formation of statehood.
Rent in times of feudal lords and princes
A rent has several definitions. During the development of feudalism within the boundaries of Kievan Rus, there is a fairly close relationship between the feudal lords (the people in whose land was located) and the peasants living in this territory. Those who did not have the opportunity to purchase their own piece of land, was forced to work for someone else. This right had to be paid.
In a similar situation were the tribes and communities of ancient Rumi, whose lands were seized by the princes. They also had to regularly make payments to the treasury of the state in order to live on their lands. People who were in a similar situation (regardless of the time of their existence) were forced to regularly give the established redemption. At this time, as a tax, goods and products provided to the master's table or sold on the market were used. Later came the cash dues.
Modern interpretation of rent
If you call the events of antiquity modern terms, then rent is a kind of rent. She was paid for the urgent or indefinite use of real estate, based on the terms of the contract of employment. A rent is characterized by a private-law character, pronounced in the payment of a “rent from naddachi”. They were levied on people owning trading places, shops, taverns, forges, mills, making public tenders and shipments. Among the taxpayers were those who committed beaver gon, fishing and other industrial work.
In the XVI century, the peasants were equated with things in the feudal property. Therefore, very often, whole villages with a population living in them were rented out. In addition, the tenant paid not only the rent (it was a relatively small amount), but also all government taxes and duties. The peasants, too, were obliged to pay their owner the rent for the use of these lands, which gave them food and livelihood.
If the farmer had no money or goods, he had to work. This was the beginning of the formation of serfdom.
If a person used the land and for some reason could not pay the rent with money or products, he had to work for some time in favor of the feudal lord on his plot. And that is exactly what the corvée and the rent rate differ in - it is a form of rent.
A very common corvee was in the XVI century. At that time, she replaced the rent, the definition of which we have already given, but lasted much less time. This is due to the fact that it was not always possible to grow enough food on the leased land in order to feed the family and give it to the feudal lord. In times of crop failure, the peasant, who gave dues to his master, was forced to starve. Therefore, the feudal lords introduced the possibility of returning the rent by performing free works on their lands.
The main characteristics of cornea include:
- collection exclusively in the form of a variety of physical labor, and not a commodity;
- the obligation of this form of rent payment for the land for all without exception;
- free of charge.
General differences between corvee and curvature
Barshchina, the free work of serfs on the land of the landowner, was borrowed from the western part of Europe. This happened even during the existence of Kievan Rus. At first its distribution covered parts of the country under occupation of Poland and Lithuania. The peasant carried out these obligatory works absolutely free of charge, using his tools.
After the abolition of serfdom in 1861, corvee was a temporary obligation. She had the appearance of a voluntary agreement between the peasant and the landlord. Monetary tax has become more common.
The existence of a rent is characterized by about the same time as the spread of cornea. The rent is cash and food given by the peasant to the landowner. The natural form of this service differs from the serfdom in that the landowner charged the surplus product produced by the debtor. The financial form was not so common due to the fact that the common man was very difficult to get money.
Based on this, we can conclude that corvée and dues are duties that were often combined.
The main differences of labor and monetary forms of service
- Corvee was unpaid serf performed with the use of their personal tools, dues – the monetary or product payment.
- Barshchina departed not only for the landowner, but also for the church, monastery or educational institution.
- Working out was more common than monetary obligations.
- At the base of serfdom lay the physical labour on the land, and the rents could be paid with income from other fisheries, not agriculture-related.
- The monetary form of rent could be requested in advance.
- Responsibility was more common in rural areas, while dues were in urban areas.
- The peasant on the rent theoretically had more freedom than in Barschina.
Ending cash and labor rent
Despite the active struggle against these remnants of feudalism, corvé and duescheled for quite a long time. This or that form of rent took place before the beginning of the XIX century. The main reason for this was the economic situation in the country. The spread of the power of the feudal lords did not allow the economy to develop in the right way.
The rent, the definition of which is given here in sufficient detail, was associated with the lack of money, forced the peasants to depend on wealthier people. After the abolition of serfdom, the destruction of the feudal system and the restructuring of the state's economy took several decades.
Cunning landlords constantly tried to maximize the serfdom, which caused discontent among the population. In this confrontation, the rent and the corvee, closely related to each other, existed for a long time.