"Style is a man." In the impact on subordinates, communicating with partners, clients, the personality traits of any boss are manifested. The concept of leadership style is directly related to the essence of management. How do supporters of radically opposite methods solve a variety of managerial issues? Read in our review.
Three methods of leadership
Management methods are diverse, but for scientific purposes they are divided into three main groups:
- administrative organizational or command methods;
- psychological methods.
An experienced manager, taking into account the situation and peculiarities of the team, selects the complex of the most effective measures from each group.
The choice of methods and the frequency of their application are influenced not only by objective reasons, but also by personal preferences of the manager. “Favorite” skills in general leave their imprint on all business communication with colleagues. Team management styles are a combination of methods and measures implemented by the manager.
Typology of styles
Today, Kurt Lewin's typology is in demand and relevant. The psychologist singled out three managerial styles: autocratic, democratic and neutral. Styles are distinguished by managerial methods, control systems, and the presence or absence of delegation of authority.
It is common for an autocrat to focus all workflows under his close attention: “Where it is not the self, then there is a grave!” He always relies only on himself. Usually, the autocrat believes that subordinates do not like to work, as “small children” need to be forced. Gives orders and orders, insisting on complete submission. Violation of its requirements is punishable by sanctions. "A minimum of democracy, a maximum of control." All actions of the personnel are clearly regulated by instructions, regulations and require the constant participation of the authorities.
The leadership style in the organization is more focused on improving the efficiency of the workflow. It gives results such as: high productivity, profitability, fulfillment of the plan. On the other hand, the Manager selects a position outside the group, and socio-psychological climate and collective interests do not always take into account. The slave ceases to be a person, and turns into a "bolt" of the bureaucratic system.
Such an advantage as a strong control function sometimes turns into a workload for a manager for 25 hours a day! Strengthening the bureaucracy with the growth of the organization deprives managerial decisions of efficiency.
Pros and cons of autocratic style
- unity of command;
- focus on results;
- good discipline;
- efficiency, quick response;
- minimum time and material costs;
- efficiency in difficult periods: the crisis, the formation of the organization and others.
- high dependence of working groups on the leader;
- high volitional pressure and control by the authorities;
- suppression of initiative employees, stagnation, lack of opportunity to apply creative potential;
- ineffective motivation, poor socio-psychological climate, staff dissatisfaction;
- sole control, requiring significant time and effort;
- probability of error in sole decisions.
Democratic leadership style is effective in terms of productivity and is not inferior to autocratic. Employees under the command of a democrat form a cohesive team, are satisfied with work and labor relations, are active, initiative.
The Democrat Leader always organizes a discussion of the problem. As they say, “one head thinks - well, and two or more - better.” The collective method of making management decisions increases the likelihood of their correctness.
With a collegial style, a lot of time is not lost in the process of control, because the manager’s attention is drawn to the results of work, and not the whole course of work, as in the case of autocratic management. Powers are actively delegated to employees who follow the work results. Personnel for a Democrat is the main resource and source of information.
Motivation in the team increases due to the interest in the personality of the employee. People feel their involvement in the common cause. This leadership style in the organization allows you to implement a streamlined feedback.
What is the strength and weakness of the democratic style?
- successful collective solution of non-standard issues;
- self control;
- from the staff requires activity, innovative thinking, creative aspirations;
- good relations, the climate in the team;
- staff satisfaction with working conditions.
- significant material costs of motivation;
- will require more labor on the part of the manager;
- effective with highly skilled workers.
This style is applicable in the conditions of formation, growth of the enterprise with a fairly stable team. It is very useful in situations of crisis in the internal environment of the company, when problems arise in relationships, work processes.
Basic leadership styles should be applied to the situation. An experienced manager has different approaches. But it is impossible to drastically change styles because of the psychological tendency towards certain management methods. Autocrat is not able to turn into a Democrat in one moment, but he can adjust his own management style to suit the circumstances.
A diverse arsenal of methods and methods of personnel management contributes to successful activity in the field of management. The development of these skills can not occur by itself, as managerial talent does not arise spontaneously, it must be developed and trained.