"Style is a person." In the impact on subordinates, communication with partners, clients, the personality traits of any boss appear. The concept of leadership style is directly related to the essence of management. How do the adherents of cardinally opposite methods solve a variety of management issues? Read in our review.
Three methods of guidance
Management methods are diverse, but for scientific purposes they are divided into three main groups:
- administrative-organizational, or command methods;
- psychological methods.
An experienced manager, taking into account the situation and the characteristics of the team, selects a set of the most effective measures from each group.
The choice of methods and the frequency of their use are affected not only by objective reasons, but also by the personal preferences of the manager. "Favorite" skills in general leave an imprint on all business communication with colleagues. Styles of team management are a set of methods and measures implemented by the manager.
Typology of styles
A popular and relevant for today is the typology of Kurt Levin. The psychologist identified three administrative styles: autocratic, democratic and neutral. Styles differ in management methods, control systems, the presence or absence of delegation of authority.
Autocrat tend to focus all the work processes under its close attention: "Where not himself - so there is a grave!" He always counts only on his strength. Usually the autocrat believes that subordinates do not like to work, as "small children" they must be forced. He gives orders and orders, insisting on complete submission. Violation of its requirements is punishable by sanctions. "The minimum of democracy, the maximum control." All actions of personnel are clearly regulated by instructions, regulations and require the constant participation of superiors.
This style of leadership in the organization is aimed at increasing the efficiency of the workflow. It gives such results as: high productivity, profitability, overfulfilment of the plan. On the other hand, the leader chooses a position outside the group, and the socio-psychological climate and collective interests do not always take into account. The subordinate ceases to be a person, but turns into a "bolt" of the bureaucratic system.
Such an advantage, as a strong monitoring function, sometimes turns into a workload for the manager for 25 hours a day! Strengthening bureaucracy with the growth of the organization deprives the managerial decisions of efficiency.
Pros and cons of autocratic style
- one-man management;
- focus on results;
- good discipline;
- responsiveness, rapid response;
- minimum time and material costs;
- efficiency in difficult periods: crisis, formation of the organization and others.
- high dependence of working groups on the manager;
- great willful pressure and control by the authorities;
- suppression of initiative staff, stagnation, lack of opportunity to apply creativity;
- ineffective motivation, poor socio-psychological climate, staff dissatisfaction;
- single control, which requires considerable time and effort;
- probability of error in individual decisions.
Democratic leadership style is effective in terms of productivity indicators and is not inferior to autocratic. The employees under the democrat's initiative form a close-knit team, are satisfied with the work and labor relations, are active and initiative.
The leader-democrat always organizes a discussion of the problem. As they say, "one head thinks - it is good, but two or more - it is better". The collective method of making managerial decisions increases the probability of their correctness.
With the collegial style, there is not a lot of time lost in the control process, because the manager's attention is drawn to the results of labor, and not the entire course of work, as in autocratic management. Powers are actively delegated to employees who follow the results of the work. The staff for the democrat is the main resource and source of information.
Motivation in the team is enhanced by interest in the employee's personality. People feel their involvement in the common cause. This style of leadership in the organization makes it possible to implement well-established feedback.
What is the strength and weakness of a democratic style?
- successful collective solution of non-standard issues;
- from employees requires activity, non-standard thinking, creative aspirations;
- good relations, the climate in the team;
- staff satisfaction with working conditions.
- significant material costs of motivation;
- will require a lot of work on the part of the manager;
- it is effective with highly skilled workers.
This style is applicable in the conditions of formation, growth of an enterprise with a fairly stable team. It is very useful in situations of crisis in the company's internal environment, when problems arise in relations, working processes.
The main styles of management should be applied on the situation. An experienced manager has different approaches. But cardinally changing styles is impossible because of the psychological inclination to certain methods of management. An autocrat can not become a democrat at one point, but he can adjust his own style of management in the light of circumstances.
A diverse arsenal of methods and methods of personnel management contributes to successful activities in the field of management. The development of these skills can not occur by itself, as managerial talent does not arise spontaneously, it must be developed and trained.